Industrial turnover indices

Period: Annual
Year: 2019

01. Contact
02. Metadata update
03. Statistical presentation
04. Unit of measure
05. Reference Period
06. Institutional Mandate
07. Confidentiality
08. Release policy
09. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy and reliability
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment

01. ContactTop
01.1. Contact organisation

Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (SORS)

01.2. Contact organisation unit

Industry, Construction and Energy Department,

Industrial Statistics Unit

01.3. Contact name

Jasmina.kostic - Simov

01.4. Contact person function

Head of Industry statistics unit

01.5. Contact mail address

Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, Milana Rakica 5, 11 000 Belgrade, Serbia

01.6. Contact email address

01.7. Contact phone number

+381 011 2411 852

01.8. Contact fax number

+381 011 2411 852

02. Metadata updateTop
02.1. Metadata last certified
02.2. Metadata last posted
02.3. Metadata last update

03. Statistical presentationTop
03.1. Data description

Turnover index gives measure of the development of the receipts of sales including the sales of goods and services provided to other parties. Industrial Turnover Indices measure changes in turnover between two different periods of time. Turnover in industry is an important indicator of demand for industrial products and services. Information about turnover in industry are particularly important for short–term analysis.

All disseminated data are index data. Index data give information on total market, domestic market and nondomestic market.  For each of these markets are shown the total turnover in industry (Sections B and C), MIGs (MIG Energy excluding Sections D and E) and Sections  level (B and C separately) of NACE Rev.2 classification (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community). Data are collected by using the reporting method on the Monthly survey on turnover in industry (IND-2).

03.2. Classification system

- National classification of economic activities – KD (2010) based on NACE Rev.2 classification (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community).

- Main Industrial Groupings (MIGs).

03.3. Coverage - sector

Enterprises with principal activity classified in sections B (Mining and quarrying) or C (Manufacturing) of NACE Rev.2 . On the level of NACE Rev. 2 divisions smallest enterprises according to annual turnover in financial statements in 2017 are excluded.

Selected business entities whose main activity is not in section B or C, but they have significant turnover in these sections (as secondary activity), are also included.


03.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

The following information is collected from each reporting unit  for each reference month: total income from sales (turnover), income from sales (turnover) on domestic market and income from sales (turnover) on nondomestic market.
Industrial turnover index is Laspeyres type index. Indices are calculated by aggregation of industrial turnover value datasales in reporting month. The objective of the turnover in industry index is to show the dynamics of the market for industrial goods and services. Turnover comprises the totals invoiced by the observation unit during the reference period, and this corresponds to market sales of goods or services supplied to third parties. Turnover also includes all other charges (transport, packaging, etc.) passed on to the customer, even if these charges are listed separately in the invoice. Turnover excludes VAT and other similar deductible taxes directly linked to turnover as well as all duties and taxes on the goods or services invoiced by the unit. The indices of domestic and nondomestic turnover require turnover to be split according to the first destination of the product based on the change of ownership. The destination is determined by the residency of the third party that purchased the goods and services.

03.5. Statistical unit

Units of statistical observation are enterprises with main activity in sections B and C of NACE Rev.2. Also, for business engaged in industry, but with the main activity outside the sections B and C, statistical unit is kind of activity unit (KAU).


03.6. Statistical population

Statistical population consists of enterprises with main activity in sections B and C of NACE Rev.2. Also, statistical population includes kind of activity units (KAU) for business engaged in industry, but with the main activity outside the sections B and C.

The sampling frame is based on statistical business register (SBR) which includes about 19 000 of enterprises in sections B and C that have reported annual financial statements for 2017. The sampling frame was constructed from this list of industrial enterprises by cutting off the smallest enterprises according to the auxiliary information on the annual turnover for 2017. The sampling frame includes about 4 900 enterprises that cover at least 95% of the total turnover and more than 90% of turnover on the level of NACE Rev. 2 divisions. In addition, the sampling frame includes 93 KAUs. About 600 units are surveyed every month.



03.7. Reference area

Republic of Serbia.

Since 1999, the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia doesn’t dispose of certain data for AP Kosovo and Metohia, so they are not contained in the data coverage for the Republic of Serbia (total).

 The turnover of the units located outside the Serbian territory is not included. 

03.8. Coverage - Time

There are the time series indices for the period beginning in January 2000 on the 2015 base year.

For the period from January 2000 to December 2006 the data were estimated. Statistical survey of turnover in the industry has been conducted since January 2007.

Time series are available as gross indices.


03.9. Base period

Base period is average of previous year. Indices are published related to the previous year. For the period beginning in January 2000  indices are recalculated with the 2015 base year.

04. Unit of measureTop
04. Unit of measure


05. Reference PeriodTop
05. Reference Period

Calendar month. Reporting units complete questionnaires until the 20th of the current month for the preceding month.

06. Institutional MandateTop
06.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

National legal bases for conducting the Survey of turnover in Industry is regulated by the Official Statistics Law (“Official Gazette of RS”, No 104/2009), as well as Resolution on the Programme of Official Statistics of the Republic of Serbia over 2016-2020 (“Official Gazette of RS“, No. 55/2015), Regulation on the plan of official statistics for 2019 (“Official Gazette of RS”, No 105/2018), and Classification of activities (Official Gazette of the RS``, No. 54/2010).  Official statistics law states that all persons who manage or represent legal persons are obliged to provide the SORS with reliable data. There is obligation on units to provide data related to turnover in industry. The survey is included into the Regulation on defining the plan of official statistics – it is compulsory.

Legal acts are available in SORS website:

EU Legislation: Regulation (EC) 1893/2006 establishing the statistical classification of economic activities NACE Rev. 2), Council Regulation 1165/98 of 19 May 1998 concerning short–term statistics, Regulation 1158/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2005 concerning short–term statistics, Commission Regulation 1503/2006  of 28 September 2006 concerning short–term statistics as regards the definition of variables, list of variables and frequency of data, Commission Regulation 656/2007 of 14 June 2007 establishing the classification of the main industrial groupings (MIGs).

06.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia makes available the nonconfidential data on the SORS website. Data are transmitted to Eurostat through eDamis in unadjusted form.

07. Confidentiality Top
07.1. Confidentiality - policy

Data confidentiality is stipulated by:

- Official Statistics Law (Official Gazette of RS, number 104/2009), Articles 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, and 49.


- Rulebook on statistical data protection in the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia


- Guidelines on measures of data and information protection in the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia

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07.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Data which enable statistical units to be identified, either directly or indirectly are not published. Data are published on the level at which they are not confidential.

08. Release policyTop
08.1. Release calendar
Calendar of releases is available at SORS website on the 1st day of December every year for the forthcoming year (
All SORS releases are launched at 12.00.
Any divergence from the defined time schedule in the Calendar are announced in and explained.  


08.2. Release calendar access

Calendar of releases is available at SORS website:


08.3. Release policy - user access
The data obtained through Monthly survey on turnover in industry are released at the internet presentation (,
in statistical releases and publications ( 
The results of official statistics are available at the same time to all users on impartial basis; any privileged access by external users before their release is not allowed.  


09. Frequency of disseminationTop
09. Frequency of dissemination

Data are collected monthly. Dissemination of results is also monthly.

10. Accessibility and clarityTop
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Statistical release is available each month to all users, free of charge, at 12 o'clock  on stated day in the Release Calendar on SORS website.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Statistical release is published every month at 12 o`clock on the day specified in Release calendar. This release is available in paper and electronic form, bilingual (Serbian, English) and accessible on statistical website. Statistical release contains unadjusted monthly turnover index for  total (B+C), MIGs, section B and section C separately  for turnover in  total industry, for turnover on domestic market and for non–domestic market.  There are two types of indices: referent month compared to average of previous year and referent month compared to the same month of the previous year.

The Monthly Statistical Bulletin, is a complex bilingual (Serbian, English) publication in paper and electronic form, bilingual (Serbian, English) and it is accessible on statistical website. Table that presents indices of turnover in the industry is in the Industry chapter. The table contains unadjusted monthly turnover index for total industry, domestic market and nondomestic market for the current and previous year. For the current year monthly indices compared to the average of the previous year are presented. For the previous year, monthly indices compared to the average of that year are presented.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

The database contains unadjusted indices of turnover in the industry within the theme Industry. Turnover indices are given for the total market, domestic market and non–domestic market. For each of these markets indices for total (B+C),  MIGs and Sections B and C were shown. For all the mentioned variables are presented monthly indices since January 2000 on 2015 base year. Also, annual indices from 2000 to 2019 on 2015 base year are presented.

The database is available on line to all users. The frequency of updating is monthly.

Link to the statistical website:

Additionally, time series for ‘’last 13 months’’ based on the 2015 base year are available in the table Indices of turnover in industry by MIGs and sections, on SORS website:




10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access
On request, the access to anonymized microdata is ensured to scientific and research institutions.
The request can be placed by email at, or by regular mail addressed at 
5 Milana Rakića St, Belgrade.


10.5. Dissemination format - other

Current data are sent monthly to Eurostat via eDamis. Also, there is dissemination on ad-hock  request: Special tables may be obtained from the  "Relations with users and eservices".

10.6. Documentation on methodology

It is used the Eurostat`s document: Methodology of Short–term Business Statistics, Interpretation and guidelines, 2006.

National methodological document, based on Eurostat`s document, is available on the statistical website:

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Not available.

11. Quality managementTop
11.1. Quality assurance
The SORS quality management system is relied on the Serbian official statistics mission and vision, as well as on the European Statistics Code of Practice – CoP and the Total Quality Management – TQM principles, which together make the common quality framework of the European Statistical System (ESS).
For more information, please see the documents at


11.2. Quality management - assessment

Turnover in industry is based on reliable survey data. The level of accuracy is high. Publication of results is punctual, and easy assessable. Industrial Turnover Index calculation is based on recommended international methodology. It is internationally comparable since follows EU and relevant international concept, definitions and classifications. Comparability over time is good. Republic of Serbia has required length of time series. Comparability with other statistical domains primarily the quarterly SBS is satisfactory.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. User needs

Data of turnover in the industry provide statistical information necessary to monitor the competitiveness and performance of the business community. It is used by SORS`s National Accounts Department as input in compiling the components in national accounts. Therefore data are used by national users ( Serbian National Bank, Ministry of finance, other government bodies, economic analysts in institutes, companies and financial institutions, media) and international users (Eurostat).

12.2. User satisfaction


On biennial basis (once in two years), by the means of web interview, implemented is the User Satisfaction Survey. The survey results are available at SORS website:

Special user satisfaction survey regarding shortterm indicators  was not conducted so far.

12.3. Completeness

All time series of Industrial Turnover Indices: total industry, MIGs, sections, on total market, on domestic and on nondomestic market are available since 2000 based on NACE Rev.2, according to STS Requirements, for countries belonging to the Group I, are provided.

13. Accuracy and reliabilityTop
13.1. Overall accuracy

As for all surveys, errors are inevitable. In this survey, there are sampling and non–sampling errors. Sampling errors are a consequence of observing a random sample instead of the whole population, while main non–sampling errors are coverage errors, non‒response errors, measurement and processing errors. In spite of their existence, the survey design is such that they are kept under control and do not violate the estimates.


13.2. Sampling error

In this survey was used stratified simple random sample. Stratification of the sampling frame was according to MIGs (five classes: Energy; Intermediate Goods; Capital Goods; Durable Consumer Goods; Non Durable Consumer Goods), final accounts size measure (four size classes: micro; small; medium and large enterprises), turnover in 2017 (two size classes: large enterprises on the level of MIG classes; other) and NACE Rev.2 section ( Mining and quarrying (B); Manufacturing (C)). Units with largest turnover and those with businesses engaged in industry, but with the main activity outside the sections B and C, were census units. Allocation of sample was done using the Bethel algorithm (Bethel, J. “Sample allocation in multivariate surveys”, Survey methodology, 15, 1989: 47–57). Turnover was used as the auxiliary information. This way a sample of 601 units was allocated.

Sampling error is not estimated for the key indicator–Laspeyres index, but only for the monthly turnover in industry. For the total monthly turnover, estimates of the coefficients of variation (CVs) are around 1.9 - 2.3%.

The monthly surveys are based on the same sample (with differences due to nonresponse errors) or on coordinated samples with rotation of 1/5 of sampling units, for samples of successive years. That is why errors of indices are not expected to be high.

In the Annex referring to Accuracy is a table with monthly estimates of standard errors by main classes of MIG.


 Annexes :
 Coefficients of variation
13.3. Non-sampling error

The survey sampling frame was constructed from SBR in such a way that the smallest enterprises were excluded, according to the turnover in annual financial statements for year t‒2, where t is the survey reference year. Also statistical enterprises that are not obliged to report the balance sheets (mainly small enterprises that correspond to entrepreneurs in legal world) are not covered, as well as newly established.

Under‒coverage arising from these causes is not measured, but it is expected that it does not have a significant impact on total turnover index in industry.

Over‒coverage units (out of scope, ineligible) are resolved units determined not to belong to the target universe for the survey. These are, for example units that are closed, not working, in bankruptcy, in liquidation or units whose economic activity is not covered by the survey. Over‒coverage error is estimated from the survey. The average rate of over‒coverage was 8.1% in 2019.

Based on industry turnover data collected in 2019 and the results obtained from processing them, the un-weighted response rate on the level of the Republic of Serbia on average was 94.36%. The size-weighted unit response rate was obtained with the size-weight that is the product of design sample weight and a size measure: reported turnover in industry in the given month.  The size-weighted unit response rate on the level of the Republic of Serbia in 2019 was between 96.15% (January) and 98.03% (October). The size-weighted response rate in 2019 on the level of Republic of Serbia on average was 97.48%.

Non‒response units are in‒scope units that are either non‒respondents or those units that provide information below the “usable” threshold (“no contacts”, refusals and other non‒responding units).

The un-weighted non‒response rate on the level of the Republic of Serbia in 2019 was between 5.25% (August) and 6.16% (March). The average un-weighted nonresponse rate on the level of the Republic of Serbia in 2019 was 5.64%. The average size-weighted nonresponse rate (size-weight is the product of design sample weight and a size measure: reported turnover in industry in the given month) on the level of the Republic of Serbia in 2019 was 2.52%.

In order to speed up data collection or reduce the non‒response, non‒responding units are followed up by telephone contacts or visited by field officers.

There is no case of item non‒response as it is already checked in the stage of organizing the data whether the questionnaires are filled out completely. If this is not the case, the unit concerned is contacted by telephone and the missing data are obtained from it.

In the Annex referring to Accuracy are tables with monthly un‒weighted over‒coverage and non‒response rates by main classes of MIGs.

 Annexes :
 Over-coverage rates, Response rates; Non-response rates

14. Timeliness and punctualityTop
14.1. Timeliness

The Turnover Indices (total, on domestic and on non–domestic market) are firstly published 45 days after the end of the reference month.

Monthly indices are transmitted to Eurostat in a proper form within required deadlines.

14.2. Punctuality

All data are published according to the announced Release calendar. Link

Every deviation from the plan published in the Release Calendar is previously announced and explained.

Also, there are no deviations from the planned deadlines at any stage of survey implementation.

15. Coherence and comparabilityTop
15.1. Comparability - geographical

Turnover indices are representative only for the country level; they are not representative for the regions of the country.

SORS applies methodology, which is in line with international standards to calculate turnover indices. The application of the STS methodological guidelines ensures a good comparability between national data and European aggregates. 

15.2. Comparability - over time

Currently, monthly indices are presented as time series from January 2000 on 2015 base year. Since January 2018 the base year for short–term indicators has been changed. Turnover indices are calculated and published on 2015 base year. The time series has been recalculated according to the new base year.

Historically, SORS has started to collect data on turnover in industry since 2007. National Classification of economic activities KD(2010) (based on NACE Rev.2) has been implemented in short–term statistics since 2011. Historical data for all months back to January 2007 were recalculated according to the NACE Rev. 2 (National classification KD (2010)).

Monthly turnover indices for the period January 2000–December 2006 were estimated. In order to estimate the turnover in the industry for the period 2000–2006 was analyzed, compliance data available to the National Accounts Department at SORS and the data obtained from the survey IND–2 on turnover at the annual level for the section B + section C  for all years since 2007. Results were showed a high degree of compliance and then the turnover in the industry was estimated in the following manner:

On the basis of monthly data for the period  January 2007–December 2012, from the survey on turnover in industry were calculated the average amount turnover by month and the average amount of turnover on the year. After that, were calculated the share of the average monthly turnover in the average annual turnover for the same period. This calculation was performed for the total turnover in industry, for the turnover on domestic market and for turnover on non–domestic market.

Total turnover of the sections B and C of NACE Rev. 2 per year, for the period 2000–2006, has been taken from the National accounts. The structure that was obtained from the statistical survey on turnover in the industry for the period 2007–2012 was applied to the turnover  from the national accounts for the period 2000–2006.

After the calculation of the absolute amounts of monthly turnover for the period 2000–2006, turnover indices were calculated–monthly amounts ​​were compared with the average turnover in 2010 (average turnover for 2010 was obtained from the survey on turnover in the industry).

The time series from January 2000 are posted on the SORS website and transmitted to Eurostat.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Statistical survey of turnover in industry, annual SBS and quarterly SBS surveys provide  data of  total  industry turnover. Data may differ due to differences in coverage. Annual SBS surveys is conducted exhaustively and all enterprises are legally obliged to submit their Annual Reports. The survey on turnover in industry is a sampling survey, and it is a part of sample of quarterly SBS survey.  Also, data may differ due to differences in methodology. The ``definitions`` of turnover collected in SBS surveys and in monthly survey on turnover in industry are not the same.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Aggregates are always consistent with their subaggregates:

- turnover on domestic market and turnover on nondomestic market are consistent and coherent with total industrial turnover,

- turnover by MIGs is consistent and coherent with total turnover and

- turnover by sections is consistent and coherent with total turnover.

16. Cost and BurdenTop
16. Cost and Burden

No information.

17. Data revisionTop
17.1. Data revision - policy

 The SORS general revision policy constitutes the global frame ensuring that each statistical domain shall define its own revision policy in compliance with its specific nature.

 The general SORS revision policy determines:

 - general rules of revisions of the published data,

- forms of informing users as regards the possible causes of revisions,

- categories of revisions, and

- documents covering all aspects of revisions.

 The general SORS revision policy is available at:

Data revision calendar does not exist.

The same revision policy is applied for publishing of national data and for data transmitted to Eurostat.

Also, there are some procedures in the Industry Statistics Unit. There is a confrontation with Quarterly SBS data. Some revisions are realized quarterly, when data from Quarterly SBS are available. 

Turnover indices for all months of the current year are published and treated as ``preliminary results``.  At the end of the year, after possible changes they ``become`` final. Indices are available into statistical database posted on the SORS website.


17.2. Data revision - practice

Revisions are realized monthly. Revisions due to errors are implemented immediately after detection. The most of revisions of Turnover in industry Index are realized because of the availability of more complete data, or additional corrections from respondents. Estimates are replaced with definitive figures when they are available. The most of minor revisions are performed at the beginning of the year. Size of revisions was not measured so far. Monthly, there are approximately 510 changes on reporting unit level. The most of them does not affect higher levels (total industry, MIGs, sections). SORS has no practice to publish final indices on Turnover in industry in ``new`` Release form, but put them into statistical database. The users are informed that indices published in Statistical Release are ``preliminary data`` that might be changed.  Minor revisions of Turnover in industry indices are not explaining to the users.

There is a confrontation with Turnover from Quarterly SBS on reporting unit level. Some revisions are realized quarterly, when data from Quarterly SBS are available.

Regular revisions are realized every 5 years due to the change of base year. Users are informed on those revisions in Note which follows statistical database.

18. Statistical processingTop
18.1. Source data

The data source is statistical survey known as „Monthly survey on turnover in industry IND–2”. That survey covers enterprises registered in the Sections B or C of NACE Rev.2 and KAUs with industrial activity belonging to enterprises outside of sections B and C. Survey is conducted on a sample. Stratified simple random sampling is used. Strata are defined by cross classifying: 5 classes of MIGs (Energy, Intermediate goods, Capital goods, Durable consumer goods and Non‒durable consumer goods); 4 size classes as defined in balance sheets (micro, small, medium and large enterprises); 2 classes defined on NACE Rev.2 sections (B (Mining and quarrying) and C (Manufacturing)); and 2 size classes according to the reported turnover in balance sheets (census units and non census that are randomly selected).

18.2. Frequency of data collection

Data are collected monthly.

18.3. Data collection

Data are collected both with a paper questionnaires and with web based questionnaires (IND2).  Questionnaires are sent to reporting units by post for all 12 months at the beginning of the year. Also, the questionnaire is located on the  website and reporting units can use it. Reporting units  may send completed questionnaires by post, fax or email. Telephone contacts are taken in order to increase response rate.

18.4. Data validation

Data validation is done during data processing: first, during data entry, then through the IT process of calculating the aggregates. Data editing is based on rules designed to detect errors. Some errors can be automatically corrected, but the correction of some errors requires contact with the reporting units. Finally, data validation is conducted during analysis of the aggregates.

Before transmission to Eurostat, the structure of the data file and format is checked in details. The data that should be transmitted to Eurostat are first transferred to the SORS dissemination database, from which they are automatically mapped. Than an SDMX-ML data file is formed and submited to Eurostat via EDAMIS.

18.5. Data compilation

The starting point for the data compilation, are the data on turnover collected from reporting units. Steps of processing data can be summarized as follows:

- Data entry from IND2 questionnaire,

- Detection and correction of errors and inconsistencies;

- Reduction of non–response, i.e. contacting the reporting units in order  they submit the data;

- Estimation procedure consisting of calculation of weights (original weights are corrected for nonresponse); detection and treatment of outliers and estimation of totals and their standard errors by defined domains of interest. During estimation, data suspected to be incorrect (for example, turnover expressed in RSD instead of thousands of RSD) are marked and returned to be checked.   

- Calculation of indices for all aggregates (starting from divisions under sections B and C). Indices are simple Laspeyres indices. No weighting is done. Indices are calculated on the average of the 2015 base year and on the average of the previous year.

-  In quarterly periodicity, check of aggregated data by comparison of estimates with corresponding  estimates from quarterly SBS survey.

18.6. Adjustment

Not applicable.

19. CommentTop
19. Comment