Pilot Farms Structure Survey

Period: Every three years
Year: 2018

01. Contact
02. Metadata update
03. Statistical presentation
04. Unit of measure
05. Reference Period
06. Institutional Mandate
07. Confidentiality
08. Release policy
09. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy and reliability
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment

01. ContactTop
01.1. Contact organisation
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia 
01.2. Contact organisation unit
Department for Agriculture and Forestry Statistics 


01.3. Contact name

Gordana Veljković

01.4. Contact person function

Head of Farm Structure Statistics and Statistical Farm Register unit

01.5. Contact mail address
Milana Rakica 5, Belgrade, Serbia 
01.6. Contact email address


01.7. Contact phone number

+381 11 2410397

02. Metadata updateTop
02.1. Metadata last certified
02.2. Metadata last posted
02.3. Metadata last update

03. Statistical presentationTop
03.1. Data description
1. Brief history of the national survey

The subject of agricultural census was for the first time referred to in the 18th century. Starting from the middle 19th century, regular censuses were carried out in Serbia and in the regions under Austro-Hungarian Monarchy; those used to be censuses of livestock.

The first overall census of agricultural holdings was conducted on 31 March 1931, pursuant to the Law on census of population, agricultural holdings and livestock. This census was implemented within the World census of agriculture.

After the WW2, the first agricultural census was carried out in 1948.

As long as until 1953, a census of livestock was implemented every year, and only in the census of 15 January 1951 along with data on livestock, compiled were the main data on land, structure of crop areas and agricultural machines and tools.

The census of agricultural holdings in 1960 was the second general census of agriculture.   It   was   implemented   by   combining   various   methods   for   various observation units. The method of reporting was applied to compile statistics for holdings in social ownership (agricultural enterprises, agricultural institutions, general agricultural cooperatives, cooperatives of farmers, holdings of agricultural schools, university faculties and research institutions, etc.). The census of holdings in social ownership was carried out from 1 – 10 March 1969, and the census of family agricultural holdings was implemented in the period from 15 – 31 March 1960.

The third agricultural census in Yugoslavia was conducted in 1969 as a sample based survey; it included holdings in social ownership and family holdings.

Through 1981 census of population, households and dwellings compiled were the main agricultural data. In difference to other censuses, this census was conceived to comprise organisational and methodological principles of census of population and census of agriculture.

The 1991 census of population, households and agricultural holdings covered all family agricultural holdings, regardless their size and location.

Within the Census of population, households and dwellings 2002 compiled were data on agricultural assets for family agricultural holdings. There were 16 questions in total and they concerned data on land, production output and stocks of wheat and maize, use of mineral fertilisers and pesticides, number of livestock, poultry and beehives, and number of tractors and harvesters.

The Census of Agriculture 2012 (AC) was in 2012, conducted by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (SORS) pursuant to Law on the Census of Agriculture 2011 (Official gazette RS, number 104/09 and 24/11) and within the EU project IPA 2011 (Instrument of Pre-accession Assistance).  

In 2018, Farm structure survey on the sample was carried out within the National IPA 2016 programme. Applied instruments, coverage, characteristics and standardisation of the concept and definitions are in compliance with the (Regulation (ЕC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008, on farm structure surveys and survey on agricultural production methods; Regulation (ЕC) No 1200/2009, Regulation (EU) No 715/2014) and the Eurostat methodology


2. Legal framework of the national survey
- the national legal framework

The Farm Structure Survey is conducted in compliance with the Official Statistics Law (“The Official Gazette of the RS,” no. 104/09) and the Regulation on the Setting of the Plan for the Official Statistics for the Year 2018 (“The Official Gazette of the RS,” no. 120/17).

- the obligations of the respondents with respect to the survey

The Law provides obligations of data providers. The person providing the data on the survey unit is obliged to give answers to all the questions in the questionnaire 

- the identification, protection and obligations of survey enumerators

Duties of interviewers and other persons directly carrying out survey operations are established by the Law. Interviewers, controllers and other persons executing operations relative to the survey are obliged to perform the survey operations in due time and in a requested manner.


03.2. Classification system

Questions in FSS 2018 were grouped into chapters as follows:The following groups of questions were included in the questionnaire for FSS 2018

Chapter 1: Response and identification of the holding

Chapter 2: Agricultural land

Chapter 3: Irrigation, manure usage and tillage;

Chapter 4:Number of livestock;

Chapter 5: Mechanisation

Chapter 6 Labour force and activities of the holding and other data of the holding

Data on organic production have been taken from administrative source, so that group of questions wasn't a part of questionnaire.

Questionnaire can be found in Annex.

 Annexes :
 Survey questionnaire
03.3. Coverage - sector

The observation units are agricultural holdings on the territory of the Republic of Serbia that undertake agricultural activities and are listed in the SFR:

  • Family agricultural holding
  • Agricultural holdings with legal personality
03.4. Statistical concepts and definitions
List of abbreviations
  • SORS: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
  • FSS: Farm Structure Survey
  • LSU: Livestock unit
  • MAFWM: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Watermanagement
  • SFR: Statistical Farm Register
  • AC: agriculture census
  • AWU: annual working unit


Location of the holding is the place in which the entire agricultural production or its major part are conducted. This is usually the place where the agricultural facilities/buildings intended for agricultural production are located (e.g., facilities for the placement of livestock, greenhouse, cold storage for the placement of agricultural products, the biggest administration building, etc.) or the biggest area of the used agricultural land.

Used agricultural land consists of:

   ► agricultural land in the kitchen garden,

   ► arable land and gardens (including fallow land),

   ► permanent crops – orchards, vineyards, nurseries, basket willow plantings, timothy grass areas, carob bean areas, areas in which truffles are               grown, as well as tree plantings made for sale (Christmas trees), and

   ► meadows and pastures

which the holding regularly cultivates – uses.

Kitchen garden - For the needs of the Survey, the kitchen garden will mean the agricultural area used for growing agricultural products intended for the own consumption of the members of the holding, whereas the holding may only temporarily sell the surplus products from the kitchen garden which is usually separated from the other agricultural area and is mostly located beside the house.

Family agricultural holding (family holding) is any family or other community of persons who live together and jointly use their income for meeting their basic life needs (including single households), whose members (one or more of them) undertake agricultural activities, either as their primary or secondary activity, which has single management, jointly uses the production means (land, machinery and buildings) and the work of its members, whose holder is a natural person and:

   ► cultivates – uses 50 and more ares of agricultural land at which it undertakes agricultural activities, regardless of whether this production is                   intended for the market or not, or                                                                                                                                                                                       ► cultivates – uses less than 50 ares of agricultural land, but undertakes intensive crop, fruit, vineyard, vegetable and flower production (including           also production in glass and plastic greenhouses), mushroom and livestock production, that is, undertakes agricultural activities intended for the           market, or

    ► breeds at least: – two bovine animals units, or – one bovine animals unit and two small animal units (pigs, goats, sheep – together), or – five                sheep units or five goat units, or – three pig units, or – four small animal units (pigs, goats, sheep – together), or – 50 poultry units, or – 20 bee            colonies.

Agricultural holdings with legal personality are:

► companies, agricultural cooperatives and other forms of organisations with a legal person status and entrepreneurs enlisted at the Business                 Registers Agency as predominantly undertaking agricultural activities,

► companies, agricultural cooperatives and other forms of organisations with a legal person status and entrepreneurs registered for some other              activity which have organisational units that undertake agricultural activities

Holder of the family holding is the person (a natural person) who is economically and legally accountable for the work of the holding and in whose name the said holding functions, that is, the person who undertakes the operating risks.

Administrator or manager at the holding is the person in charge of making and implementing daily decisions related to production and finances of the holding.

Members of the holding  include the holder of the holding, members of the family and relatives of the holder of the holding (married and unmarried spouse, children, parents, the in-laws or adopted members, as well as brothers and sisters of the holder of the holding and the spouse) who work at the holding, regardless of whether they live at the holding (whether they belong to another household) and whether they are paid in some way for their work at the holding or not.

Мembers of the family and relatives of the holder of the holding who undertook agricultural activity at the holding

Permanently employed at the holding who are not members of the family or relatives are all those persons who regularly perform agricultural work at the holding and receive compensation for such work (salary, daily wages, assistance, payment in kind, etc.) from the holding, but who are not members of the family of the holder of the holding or relatives, regardless of whether the holding pays social contributions for their engagement (whether they are registered with the relevant services or not).

Annual Work Unit (AWU) is a measurement unit which represents the quantity of human labour used for undertaking agricultural activities at each holding. This unit represents an equivalent of the labour of a single person, i.e., the full work time within a year: eight hours a day, 225 working days.

Other gainful activities include all the activities that are not agricultural activities at the holding, but have an economic impact on the holding. They may be: 

   ► activities directly related to the holding – the resources of the holding are used: land areas, agricultural buildings, machinery, equipment, labour           force or agricultural products, which may be: – undertaken at the holding (non-agricultural activities such as tourism, handicraft, processing of               agricultural products for sale – except for the processing of grapes for wine production in the case when the quantity of the processed grapes is           solely or mostly from the own production, etc.), Note: Methodological Instructions 58 Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia – not undertaken           at the holding (contracted agricultural and non-agricultural work, e.g., work with the own combine harvester);

   ► activities not directly related to the holding – the resources of the holding are not directly used, except for the labour force of the holding, which              may be: – undertaken at the holding – e.g., hairdresser or seamstress that render services at the holding, tradesman-a member of the holding              works at their own shop (which does not sell the holding’s products) or at an agricultural pharmacy that is located at the holding, giving lessons            at  the holding – training by a member of the holding, etc. – not undertaken at the holding – any other employment of the members of the holding          such as, e.g., work at a bank, in a factory, administration, education, etc.



03.5. Statistical unit
The national definition of the agricultural holding

Agricultural holding is a technically and economically single unit which has a single management and at which a company, agricultural cooperative, institution or some other legal company, an entrepreneur or a family agricultural holding undertake agricultural activities as their primary or secondary activity


Activities defining an agricultural holding for the purpose of the census, according to the National Classification of activities, are as follows:

  • Growing of annual, biennial and perennial crops (activities under group 01.1 and 01.2);
  • Plant propagation (group 01.3);
  • Production of wine from self-produced grapes (class 11.02);
  • Animal production (group 01.4, where class 1.49 – Raising of other animals includes only raising of ostriches, emus and rabbits, as well as bee-keeping, production of honey and beeswax);
  • Mixed farming (group 01.5); and
  • Maintaining agricultural areas in good agricultural and environmental condition (activities within class 01.61). Other support activities to agriculture and post- harvest crop activities (group 01.6) does not define agricultural holding when undertaken exclusively.

In the FSS 2018, family agricultural holding means every family or other community of people living together and sharing subsistence expenses out of their respective income (including single households), whose members (one or more) are engaged in agricultural production, being either their primary or supplementary activity, having a single management, sharing joint production means (land, machinery, buildings) and its members’ labour, the holder of which is a physical person, and is engaged in land cultivation and livestock rasing exceeding the thresholds presented in 2.6 Statistical population - item 2. below.

Special cases

  1. When due to tax liabilities or for some other reasons a holding is divided among two or more people, however it is still a single economic unit and has single management (one common manager – in charge of organising agricultural production), it will be considered a single (one) holding.
  2. When two or more independent holdings join together (wholly or partly) in a single holding using the same labour force and equipment and have single management, it will be considered a single (one) holding.
  3. If one lot of utilised agricultural area was kept by the previous owner when having transferred the holding to another person (successor, lessee, etc.), this lot will be included: in the holding of another person (successor, lessee, etc.) if he/she cultivates this lot together with the rest area of its holding; in the holding of the previous owner if he/she cultivates this lot using own labour force and equipment.
  4. If an agricultural holding used land or raised livestock on different locations, it shall be considered a single holding as long as it remains a single economic and technical unit (joint use of production means) and has single management

For the purpose of the survey, the following shall be regarded as agricultural holdings:

  • stations for raising breeding stock heads (bulls, boars, rams, he-goats, stallions, etc.) and hatcheries;
  • holdings  of  research  institutions,  religious  communities,  schools,  military institutions, confinement institutions, sanatoriums, and
  • local government bodies (municipalities) that are in charge of common land (common pastures and grassland) that is neither let on lease nor transferred to another agricultural holding, however is used for practising rights of common pasture.


The survey did not cover:

  • households with own-account agricultural production using less than 50 ares of agricultural land, and not engaging in agricultural production intended for the market, nor meeting minimum one condition regarding the number of raised livestock (see 2.6 Statistical population - item 2. below);
  • riding stables, racing stables, gallops, if not engaging in horse breeding (land used for exercising thereof is excluded), as well as kennels, markets and slaughterhouses,
  • forestry holdings,  fish  farms,  and  holdings  undertaking support  activities  to agriculture and post-harvest crop activities, unless they engage in other activities qualifying them as agricultural holdings.


Survey coverage:

  • enterprises, agricultural cooperatives, other forms of organisation with legal personality and unincorporated enterprises registered with the Serbian Business Registers  Agency  as  engaged  in  agricultural  production  as  their  prevailing activity,
  • enterprises, agricultural cooperatives, other forms of organisation with legal personality and unincorporated enterprises registered for other activity that have organised  branches  or  other  organisational   units  carrying  out  agricultural production,
  • family agricultural holdings.


03.6. Statistical population
1. The number of holdings forming the entire universe of agricultural holdings in the country

 The frame size from SFR was 626,865 AH of which: 1,978 legal entities, 455 unincorporated enterprises and 624,432 family agricultural holdings


2. The national survey coverage: the thresholds applied in the national survey and the geographical coverage

1. A family agricultural holding is covered if it:

  • cultivates - uses 50 or more ares of agricultural land for agricultural production, whether such production is intended for the market or not, or cultivates - uses less than 50 ares of agricultural land, however practices intensive crop farming, fruits growing, viticulture, growing of vegetables and flowers (including production under glasshouses and poly-tunnels), production of mushrooms and livestock raising, i.e. engages in other forms of agricultural production intended for the market, or
  • raises, as of 30 September 2018 no less than:
    • 2 heads of cattle, or
    • 1 head of cattle and 2 heads of small animals / pig, goat, sheep - in total,   or
    • 5 heads of sheep or 5 heads of goat, or
    • 3 heads of pig, or
    • 4 heads of small animals / pig, goat, sheep - in total, or
    • 50 heads of poultry, or
    • 20 colonies of bees.

2. Agricultural holdings with legal personality

Survey was conducted on the territory of Republic of Serbia without territory of Region Kosovo and Metohia.


3. The number of holdings in the national survey coverage
Sample consisted of 121,037 holdings (1,978 legal entity and 119,059 family agricultural holdings and unincorporated enterprise 


4. The survey coverage of the records sent to Eurostat


5. The number of holdings in the population covered by the records transferred to Eurostat


6. Holdings with standard output equal to zero included in the records sent to Eurostat
 95 holdings


7. Proofs that the requirements stipulated in art. 3.2 the Regulation 1166/2008 are met in the data transmitted to Eurostat
As the survey covers holdings with less than 1 hectare of utilised agricultural area, compliance to art 3.2 is not applicable.


8. Proofs that the requirements stipulated in art. 3.3 the Regulation 1166/2008 are met in the data transmitted to Eurostat
National thresholds are lower than the EU threshold - so the  criteria is meet.


03.7. Reference area

Since 1999, the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia does not have data for the AP of Kosovo and Metohija, so they are not included in the coverage of data for the Republic of Serbia (in total).

03.8. Coverage - Time
Structural data in agriculture are collected in the agricultural census every 10 years in agricultural census and in a three-year period in the survey on the structure of agricultural holdings on the sample.
In the Republic of Serbia, structural data on agricultural holdings are available for 2012 when the Agricultural Census was conducted and for 2018, when a survey was carried out on the structure of agricultural holdings on the sample.
03.9. Base period


04. Unit of measureTop
04. Unit of measure
Data on areas under different categories of agricultural land and crops  are expressed in hectares and square meters for areas under mushrooms.
Data on livestock are expressed in number of heads.
Derived - Calculate Indicators:
the conditional throat of the cattle is a common denominator of different livestock species which is calculated by multiplying the number of livestock heads corresponding to the corresponding coefficients.
annual working unit (AWU) representing the equivalent of one person's full time working day of 225 days a year.
the value of the standard output of agricultural production is expressed in euros.

05. Reference PeriodTop
05. Reference Period

The Farm Structure Survey is conducted from 1 October to 30 November 2018. The critical moment is 30 September 2018 at 24 hrs, i.e., at midnight between 30 September and 1 October 2018. 

The reference period of the Survey refers to:

а) the date of the critical moment (30 September 2018), for the data on: 

  • the available land, and
  • number of livestock;

b) agricultural year (from 1 October 2017 to 30 September 2018) for the data on:

  • the use of agricultural land,
  • the use of organic fertilizers,
  • organic production,
  • used machinery,
  • production methods in agriculture,
  • labour force,
  • non-agricultural gainful activities at the holding,
  • use and sale of own agricultural products.


06. Institutional MandateTop
06.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements
2. Legal framework of the national survey
- the national legal framework

The Farm Structure Survey is conducted in compliance with the Official Statistics Law (“The Official Gazette of the RS,” no. 104/09) and the Regulation on the Setting of the Plan for the Official Statistics for the Year 2018 (“The Official Gazette of the RS,” no. 120/17).

EU legislation 

Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 571/88 (Text with EEA relevance)


06.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Data are sent to Eurostat

07. Confidentiality Top
07.1. Confidentiality - policy
Confidentiality - policy

Accordin to the Offical statistical law, (headding IX) all producers of statistical datad aswell as persons involved in activities referred to FSS are bound to official secrecy as regard all data provided by the units covered by the survey, which are relative to personal, family, property and economic circumstances. The data collected in line with the Official statisical law may be used exclusively for statistical purposes and disseminated in the form of aggregates.

The personal and other data that will be collected by the survey shall be regarded as official statistics and therefore they will be held confidential and subject to the provisions of special protection.

Data protection is predicted by REGULATION (EC) No 1166/2008 


07.2. Confidentiality - data treatment
Confidentiality - data treatment

Regarding protection of final output tables the individual cell in the table is protected if there are fewer than "3" reporting units.



08. Release policyTop
08.1. Release calendar

Publication of the FSS 2018 wasnt announced in publication calendar,

08.2. Release calendar access


08.3. Release policy - user access


09. Frequency of disseminationTop
09. Frequency of dissemination
The first results were published in April 2019
Final data are available from 1 July 2019

10. Accessibility and clarityTop
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

For the time being, not planed

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications
1. The nature of publications

Final data are available in dissemination database http://data.stat.gov.rs/?caller=SDDB

Based on analysis of FSS 2018 data, publishing of 7 studies (special publications) is planned. As authors of these publications, experts in various agricultural areas are engaged. Publications will be promoted at the end of September 2019 and will be publishet on SORS site


2. Date of issuing (actual or planned)

Final data in july 2019.


3. References for on-line publications


10.3. Dissemination format - online database
Dissemination format - online database

Dissemination database is available on mentioned site, as well as on the official SORS site: www.stat.gov.rs.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access
Dissemination format - microdata access

Micro-data are not disseminated.

The micro-data are available according to special conditions for research purposes in compliance with the system of rules and procedures related to the dissemination of statistically protected micro-dataaccordance contained by Law on Official statistics. In this case, written request by research body must include purpose for which data will be used and can obtain micro data without persnal indentification. 


10.5. Dissemination format - other


10.6. Documentation on methodology
1. Available documentation on methodology

Methodology is available: http://popispoljoprivrede.stat.rs/popis/spg/en/?page_id=294



10.7. Quality management - documentation
Quality management - documentation

SORS quality policy is available on link: http://www.stat.gov.rs/media/2334/quality-policy.pdf

National methodological report was uploaded into National Reference Metadata in ESS Standard for Quality Reports Structure (ESQRS).


11. Quality managementTop
11.1. Quality assurance

For data editing IST (Integrated system of data processing) application is used. The processes are efficient, repeatable, and the processes assure traceability by storing backups. Since the application is developed in SORS it is possible to upgrade it and meet specific statisticians needs during the process of data editing.

11.2. Quality management - assessment

All obtained data are in line with article 5 of the Regulation (EC) No 1166/2008

12. Relevance Top
12.1. User needs
Main groups of characteristics surveyed only for national purposes

National needs are discussed with main stakoheldors, mainly representatives from MOAFWM.

Certain categories of livestock and crops are more detailed than in Eurofarm in order to provide base for validation of other annual statistical surveys. have been also taken into account. 

Data on production for certain characteristics of crops and livestock have been alo added for SORS internal needs.

Registration ID number in administrative register is also added for updating SFR and using administrative data in future.


12.2. User satisfaction

General survey on satisfaction of users is conducted each year and the results are available on SORS site. No survey on user satisfation considering FSS wasn't conducted.

12.3. Completeness

Characteristics collected are in line with Regulation 1166/2008.

Please access the information on NE and NS characteristics in the Aneex


 Annexes :
 List of characteristics with NS and NE status

13. Accuracy and reliabilityTop
13.1. Overall accuracy
Main sources of error

Main sources of error are sampling errors, non-sampling errors (coverage errors and deviation from standard definitions), non-response errors, measurement errors and processing errors.


13.2. Sampling error
Method used for estimation of relative standard errors (RSEs)

 For calculating estimates and standard errors we used Swedish software ETOS.

Kofficients of variation for main characteristics can be found in annex.


 Annexes :
 Coefficients of variation for the main characteristics
13.3. Non-sampling error
1. Under-coverage errors
The assumption is that there are not many new farms, since the tendency is to consolidate existing farms. In that sense, the probability of under-coverage is very low.


2. Over-coverage errors
 Sample frame was defined from updated SFR (state March2018) and all ineligible units, holdings that are deceased were excluded. Responding units that are not agricultural holdings according to EU definition, are treated as ineligible units and final weights were adjusted for overcoverage.
2.1 Multiple listings 
 There was not multiple listings in FSS 2018


3. Misclassification errors
Misclassification error in FSS 2018 data refers to typology class. In the responses, some units belonging to different typology group from sample strata. The reason for that is fact that for some units data are not updated since AC 2012 because they were not select in samples for agricultural surveys since 2013. If estimates are calculated for the typology class level, domain estimation will be applied.




14. Timeliness and punctualityTop
14.1. Timeliness

First results for FSS 2018 were published 18.4.2019 (6,5 months after the reference day).

FSS 2018 final results at the beggining of july 2019 (9 months after the reference day).

Data are sent to Eurostat in EUROFARM format.

14.2. Punctuality

Resulta are available according to plan, including special publications dealing with analysis of the subjects of special national interest, based on FSS 2018 results.

Special publications wil be available in September 2019.

15. Coherence and comparabilityTop
15.1. Comparability - geographical
1. National vs. EU definition of the agricultural holding
 Only physical treshold for the holding is deternimed to suit situation in the country. 


2.National survey coverage vs. coverage of the records sent to Eurostat
 The population covered in the national survey is the same as the population which was sent to Eurostat.


3. National vs. EU characteristics

The applied standardised concepts and definitions are in compliance with  "Draft proposal for the FSS 2016  variables definitions for: (i)  Commission Regulation (EU)  N° 1391/2015 (ii) Handbook on FSS definitions for  FSS 2016".





15.2. Comparability - over time
1. Possible changes of the definition of the agricultural holding
 No changes in definition from the AC 2012






2. Major trends on the main characteristics compared with the previous FSS survey
Main characteristic Current FSS survey Previous FSS survey Difference in % Comments
Number of holdings




in Serbia still prevail small holdings, but tendency is their slow enlargement.

The number of the holdings decreased, but total UAA slightly increased comaped to the AC 2012

Small units are selling or renting their agricultural land due to economic reasons and they have tendency to disappear.

Average size of UAA is 6,2ha per holding, while in AC 2012 this average was 5,4 which is mainly the consequence of decreased number of holdings.


Utilised agricultural area (ha) 3475894 3437423 101.12  
Arable land (ha) 2571580 2513154 102.32  
Cereals (ha)


1715562 99.26  
Industrial plants (ha) 493570 


Plants harvested green (ha) 229753 184941 124.23  
Fallow land (ha) 9145 22036 41.50  
Permanent grassland (ha) 676724 713242 94.88  
Permanent crops (ha) 205464 187300


Livestock units (LSU) 1933840 2019889 95.74  
Cattle (heads) 881152 908 102 97.03  
Sheep (heads) 1799814 1736440 103.65  
Goats (heads) 218397 231837 94.20  
Pigs (heads) 3266102 3407318 95.86  
Poultry (heads) 23184,387 26711000 86.80  
Family labour force (persons) 1317330



Family labour force (AWU) 591770 303782 194.80  
Non family labour force regularly employed (persons) 19610 28064 69.88  
Non family labour force regularly employed (AWU) 17347 24515 70.76   


15.3. Coherence - cross domain
1. Coherence at micro level with other data collections
 The results of the FSS 2018 were checked and compared with available administrative data.


2. Coherence at macro level with other data collections

Comparisons were made with regular statistical surveys on crop in conducted in May 2018 and animal production in 2017. In the analysis of compared data taken into account are the different periods of observations and size of the samples.                              


15.4. Coherence - internal

Data are consistent internally.

16. Cost and BurdenTop
16. Cost and Burden
Co-ordination with other surveys: burden on respondents

All agricultural statistics are produced in the same department and optimal coordination of surveys exists in order to avoid situation that some farms have to answer multiple questionnaires with the same kind of questions so the annual surveys in december on crop and livestock production in 2018 havent been conducted. Other than that due to the fact that organic production was taken from administrative sources, respondents didn't have to fill that set of questions.


17. Data revisionTop
17.1. Data revision - policy
Data revision - policy

Data revision is not planned so far. General revision policy is available on link: http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/o-nama/dokumenti/politike/politike


17.2. Data revision - practice
Data revision - practice

 Data revision is not planned so far. First results are issued in April 2019. Final data ara available since July 2019.


18. Statistical processingTop
18.1. Source data
1. Source of data

FSS 2018 data was collected by conducting survey based on stratified simple random sample, combined with administrative data source.


2. (Sampling) frame

Sampling frame was derived from Statistical Farm Register (SFR) and contained all agricultural holdings (state March 2018) which are not deceased. Frame contained about 2000 legal entirety, 455 unincorporated enterprises and about 624 000 family agricultural holdings. In the statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, Statistical Farm Register has been constructed in 2013, after Agricultural census 2012. Since 2014, SFR is updating using data from Register of agricultural Holdings of Ministry of agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, Bovine register, data from Statistical Business register and survey data. Statistical Office receives data from the Register of Agricultural Holdings of the Ministry of Agriculture at the end of May, but SFR is updated with this data in February next year, after conducting all agricultural surveys in current year. 

3.The stratification variables

Stratification was done by cross-classifying the legal status, typology classes, NUTS3 level by the location of agricultural holding, NUTS2 level by the location of agricultural holding and census indicator.

Census indicator:                                                                                                                   

One part of the frame was selected as a census (take-all) set using Hidiroglou algorithm1. The condition for take-all units was defined on the level of NUTS2 in order to achieve a certain level of precision for variables listed in Regulation 1166/2008 ANNEX IV Precision requirements.

 Exhaustive strata are all legal entities and unincorporated enterprises, as well.

[1]Hidiroglou algorithm, based on information on an auxiliary variable (correlated with the study variable), determined an optimum cut-off value for “take-all” units that minimize the sample size for a given precision for an estimate of the total at the given level.

4. Use of administrative data sources
4.1 Name, time reference and updating

Geographical reference of the holdingwere provided in the SORS from the available graphic base of enumeration areas. Administrative database for organic producers were used for data on organic production.

The register of organic producers is updated when the holding is visited by the control or certificat issuing organization.

4.2 Organisational setting on the use of administrative sources

The Law provides right of access to administrative data through the responsibilities of ministries and other selected organisations.

4.3 Reporting units and matching procedures
All organic producers have to register in MOAFWM subsidies register and they have the same ID number in Organic farming register.  All agricultural holdings in SFR have this administrative ID besides statistical ID that is used for matching the same units in all registers. Questionnaire for agricultural census in 2012 as well as questionnaire for FSS 2018 contain question considering this administrative ID which is used for he purpose of matching reporting units,


18.2. Frequency of data collection
Frequency of data collection
As determined by the Regulation (EC) 1166/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on farm structure surveys and the survey on agricultural production methods and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) 571/88


18.3. Data collection
1. Data collection modes

For familly holdings and enterprenuars CAPI method on the field was used. For Legal entities CAWI method of data collection was used.


2. Data entry modes

Data entry was performed offline, by entering data into data entry application, stored in local database in lap top computers, and uploaded into central database when iternet acces becomes available


4. Monitoring of response and non-response

Number of holdings in the survey frame plus possible (new) holdings added afterwards

626 865

Number of holdings in the gross sample plus possible (new) holdings added to the sample

121 080
3 Number of ineligible holdings

9 753


Number of ineligible holdings with ceased activities

3 211

Number of holdings with unknown eligibility status

2 989

Number of eligible holdings

108 338 

Number of eligible non-responding holdings

5.2 Number of eligible responding holdings 106 574

Number of the records in the dataset 

98 386 


5. Questionnaire(s) - in annex

The questionnaire used in FSS is unique for all holdings, regardless of legal status. Each indicator has a unique code on the questionnaire.

For the purposes of better understanding of questions by members of national minorities in the Republic of Serbia, specimen forms in Hungarian and Albanian.


 Annexes :
 FSS 2018 Questionnaire
18.4. Data validation
Data validation

The way of gathering data enabled data controll as they were entered. The procces of  data validation began on the field. Around 270 logical controll rules have been built in application for data entry and about 20 warning messages.  As for the holdings of legal entities, they have been provided access to the web questionnaire with the same controls built in the questionnaire. 

After the field work was finished and data was received and linked into one database, contingency control and logical control of material have been continued. Durring that process, additional logical control rules was implemented on material and this showed that 37.938 was affected with one or more errors. In order to correct all inconsistencies and prepare database for sample methodologists for determination of post stratification and eventual new weights calculaton,  additional checks and data validation were performed:

-          Checking of the completness of data

-          Checking weather all holdings meet the criterion for the agricultural holding

-          Establishing the number of the holdings by comparison the unit response with the existance of the unit in other statistical and administrative sources

-          Checking consistency of the data which werent checked with built in LC during the data entry and outliers checking

-          Individual data corrections: for the incorrect outliers (where there is a certain mistake)

-          Logical imputation: imputed value is calculated from the values of other variables

-          Hot-deck method: Imputed value is taken from another unit (donor). Donors are selected as similar units to the recipient with respect to the (one or more) matching variables

-          Average ratio - Imputed value is calculated as the ratio of totals of the variable and auxiliary variable, multiplied by the value of the recipient’s auxiliary variable.

-          Data validation with administrative sources (Ministry of agriculture register from 2018) or with statistical surces (annual statistical surveys)

-          Comparison of the relation of certain variables obtained in FSS 2018 and AC 2012 such as SO per holding, AWU per holding, or AWU per UAA, LSU and other.

Comparison between AC2012 and FSS 2018 data                                                               

The translation (transformation) of the data for the needs of the EUROFARM base was done Eurostat validation rules have been applied and the data are forwarded to Eurostat.


18.5. Data compilation
Methodology for determination of weights (extrapolation factors)
1. Design weights
Stratified simple random sample was selected. Stratification was done by cross-classifying the legal status, typology classes, NUTS3 level by the location of agricultural holding, NUTS2 level by the location of agricultural holding and census indicator (strata surveyed exhaustively). Simple random sample was selected from each stratum. The design weights were obtained in a standard way for stratified simple random sampling.
2. Adjustment of weights for non-response
Weights were adjusted for non-response. For the calculation, units that responded and units that stated that they do not practice agriculture any more (inactive in this moment) were treated as a response. Survey data were compared with the data from Register of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, and for those units that answered that they are not involved in agricultural production and for them there are data in the Register, response in survey was corrected in refused (instead inactive).


18.6. Adjustment


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