Wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycles

Period: Annual
Year: 2021

01. Contact
02. Metadata update
03. Statistical presentation
04. Unit of measure
05. Reference Period
06. Institutional Mandate
07. Confidentiality
08. Release policy
09. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy and reliability
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment

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01. ContactTop
01.1. Contact organisation

Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (SORS)

01.2. Contact organisation unit

Domestic Trade, Catering and Tourism Statistics Division

01.3. Contact name

Natasa Cvjeticanin

01.4. Contact person function

Statistician analyst in Domestic trade unit

01.5. Contact mail address

Milana Rakica 5, Belgrade

01.6. Contact email address


01.7. Contact phone number

+381 11 2412 922 ext. 330

01.8. Contact fax number

+381 11 2411 922

02. Metadata updateTop
02.1. Metadata last certified
02.2. Metadata last posted
02.3. Metadata last update

03. Statistical presentationTop
03.1. Data description

Data on turnover realized in CA division 45 of the Classification of Activities ("Official Gazette of RS", No. 54/2010) provide an estimate of the total turnover as well monitoring of dynamics turnover.

Еstimates are used for monitoring the volume and dynamics of goods and services flow, and for computing the turnover indices in service activities, simultaneously being a part of the results for total distributive trade (CA divisions 45, 46 and 47). On the basis of the gained indicators, analysed are: effects of trade policy measures; changes in the structure of individual consumption of goods and services; volume and structure of turnover by trade activity branches. 

03.2. Classification system

Classification of Activities 2010 (“Official Gazette of RS”, no. 54/10) completely harmonized with Statistical classification of activities of EU – NACE Rev.2.


Nomenclature of statistical territorial units (NSTU).

03.3. Coverage - sector

According to CA, enterprises that are registered in wholesale and retail trade  of motor vehicles and motorcycles (CA division 45) and deliberately selected enterprises whose principal activity is not in CA division 45, but they perform significant turnover in that activity.

Unincorporated enterprises registered in wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycles (CA division 45), which are in the VAT system (VAT payers).

03.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Turnover refers to invoiced value of sales realized by the reporting unit (enterprise) from sale of products, goods and services in the observed period (quarter).

Turnover of goods in wholesale trade represents the value of goods supplied by business entities performing wholesale trade to business entities of domestic trade, to other business entities for further processing and large consumers for own consumption.

Turnover of goods in retail trade represents the value of goods supplied by business entities performing wholesale trade to business entities of domestic trade, to other business entities for further processing and large consumers for own consumption.

Turnover of goods in retail trade implies the value of goods delivered by business entities that perform retail trade to final consumers.

Turnover with VAT included implies the value of realized turnover (income) in the reporting period (quarter) with value added tax (VAT), calculated on the invoiced turnover. Excluded are financial, extraordinary and other operating income (rental income, license income, stocks sale, etc.).

Data on the number of employees and number of stores in wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycles are presented as of the end of the observed period.

03.5. Statistical unit

Statistical units of observation are enterprises which are, according to the Classification of Activities (2010), registered in the activity of wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycles (CA division 45).

Administrative data source - Database from VAT reports on turnover of unincorporated enterprises.  

A small number of business entities whose principal activity is not wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycles are included in the assessment, as they realize significant turnover in this area.

03.6. Statistical population

The basic population (target population) was formed on the basis of the data of active business entities whose principal activity is wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycles (CA division 45). All large and medium enterprises are included, while small and micro ones are selected by random sample method.

The basic set also includes a number of business entities that perform wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycles, but are classified in an another division according to their principal activity.

The sample selection frame is based on Statistical Business Register (SBR) data.

Regarding unincorporated enterprises, turnover is estimated on the basis of turnover data from Tax Administration base (monthly and quarterly).

03.7. Reference area

All indices are calculated on the level of Serbia  (level NSTU 0).

Note: Starting from 1999 the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia has not at disposal and may not provide available certain data relative to AP Kosovo and Metohija and therefore these data are not included in the coverage for the Republic of Serbia (total).

03.8. Coverage - Time

Data available since 2005.

03.9. Base period

Base year is 2015.

04. Unit of measureTop
04. Unit of measure

Indices (2015=100)

05. Reference PeriodTop
05. Reference Period

Reference period is a calendar quarter.

06. Institutional MandateTop
06.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements
National legislation:
- Official Statistics Law
- Resolution on the Programme of official statistics
- Regulation on the Plan of official statistics for the current year
* The above documents are available at SORS website:  www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/o-nama/dokumenti


06.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing


07. Confidentiality Top
07.1. Confidentiality - policy

Data confidentiality is stipulated by:

- Official Statistics Law (Official Gazette of RS, number 104/2009), Articles 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, and 49.


- Rulebook on statistical data protection in the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia


- Guidelines on measures of data and information protection in the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia

(https://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/o-nama/dokumenti )


07.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidential data may be used solely for statistical purposes under the Law on Official Statistics, Article 45.

When processing the confidential data for the users’ needs, protection must be ensured that no individual data can be recognized at any level of aggregated data.

In order to protect the privacy of individual data, only aggregated data are published.

08. Release policyTop
08.1. Release calendar
Calendar of releases is available at SORS website on the 1st day of December every year for the forthcoming year (http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/calendar).
All SORS releases are launched at 12.00.
Any divergence from the defined time schedule are announced in advance and explained in the Calendar.  


08.2. Release calendar access

Calendar of releases is available at SORS website:



08.3. Release policy - user access

The data obtained through statistical surveys are released at the internet presentation (http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/),

in statistical releases and publications (http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/publikacije/). 
The results of official statistics are available at the same time to all users on impartial basis; any privileged access by external users before their release is not allowed.  


09. Frequency of disseminationTop
09. Frequency of dissemination

Turnover indices in wholesale and retail trade turnover of motor vehicles and motorcycles (division 45) are published in quarterly periodicity in the statistical release “Domestic trade”.

10. Accessibility and clarityTop
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Data on wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles (CA division 45) are published in the "Domestic Trade" press release in quarterly periodicity on SORS website: https://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/oblasti/unutrasnja-trgovina/, both in Serbian and in English language

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Data on wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles (CA division 45) are issued in the publications "Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Serbia" and "Statistical Calendar of the Republic of Serbia", in regular annual periodicity.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Annual data on wholesale and retail turnover of motor vehicles and motorcycles (division 45) are available in the Statistical Database in scope of the statistical area of Domestic Trade:


10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access
On request, the access to anonymized microdata is ensured to scientific and research institutions.
The request can be placed by email at stat@stat.gov.rs, or by regular mail addressed at 
5 Milana Rakića St, Belgrade.


10.5. Dissemination format - other

On users’ request, SORS can provide data and information gained by special processing.

10.6. Documentation on methodology


10.7. Quality management - documentation


11. Quality managementTop
11.1. Quality assurance
The SORS quality management system is relied on the Serbian official statistics mission and vision, as well as on the European Statistics Code of Practice – CoP and the Total Quality Management – TQM principles, which together make the common quality framework of the European Statistical System (ESS).
For more information, please see the documents at http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/o-nama/sistem-upravljanja-kvalitetom.


11.2. Quality management - assessment

In all stages of statistical data production, the main quality aspects are controlled by the responsible statisticians, sample and information and communication experts.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. User needs

The main data users are state administration bodies (Government, Ministry of Trade, Tourism and Telecommunications, Ministry of Finance), Eurostat, business entities, economic analysts, scientists, media representatives, students, internal users.

12.2. User satisfaction

On biennial basis (once in two years), by the means of web interview, implemented is the User Satisfaction Survey. The survey results are available at SORS website: http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/o-nama/sistem-upravljanja-kvalitetom.


12.3. Completeness

Data are not seasonally adjusted, which is a deviation from methodological standards.

13. Accuracy and reliabilityTop
13.1. Overall accuracy

The main error sources in this survey are both of sampling and non- sampling nature. 

The survey is based on random sample. Sampling frame is constructed using enterprise data from the Statistical Business Register (SBR).

The sample design is such that the estimates for the main domains are of satisfactory precision.

The following non-sampling errors are present:

  • coverage errors due to not completely updated SBR and existing time lag in registering the changes of enterprise units;
  • errors that are a consequence of cut-off sampling, the smallest enterprises are excluded from the sampling frame;
  • measurement and non-response errors that are inevitable, but the instruments of data collection, organization and data entry are such that they are reduced to the lowest possible level.
The bias of the outcome resulting from these errors is low.
13.2. Sampling error

Sample errors in total score estimates are presented by the corresponding variation coefficients estimates for the assessment domain. When calculating the estimates, the sample weight is corrected for non-response.
Estimation of the coefficient of variation of total turnover in wholesale trade (CA 46) at the overall level for the Republic of Serbia is 1.79%.

Average coefficient of variation (%) in 2021
Republic of Serbia 1.79
Serbia - South 1.77
Beograd region 2.69
Vojvodina region 7.36


13.3. Non-sampling error

Non-sampling errors can arise in all stages of survey activities. Non-sampling errors can arise due to: coverage errors, non-response, processing, etc.

The magnitude of the under-coverage error is not computed as it is not considered significant. These errors are mainly caused by not updated Statistical Business Register that is used for constructing the sampling frame.

The smallest enterprises according to turnover value are excluded from the sampling frame.

The over-coverage and non-response errors (or the rate of response) are estimated using the information on response of the unit, which is classified in 9 categories:

  • Runs business, submits report;
  • Runs business, refuses to submit a report;
  • Not found (undeliverable questionnaire);
  • Closed, extinguished;
  • Blocked, not working;
  • Outside the scope of survey (does not perform selected activity);
  • Bankruptcy;
  • Liquidation;
  • Other reasons (e.g. unknown reason of non-response).

In order to minimize non-sampling errors resulting from a human factor, the following measures are carried out: the collected data is entered using an application that enables a "controlled entry". It is not permitted to enter the wrong data at this stage. In the next stage, after entering, further logical control of the data is performed, also via a computer program. In later steps of data processing, the expert person analyses data so as to identify and correct any remaining errors. If necessary, the reporting unit is contacted to correct the data. The final data validation is carried out by aggregates’ analysis.

 Average non-response rate in 2021 at the overall level for the Republic of Serbia is 6.58%.

Average non-response rate (%) in 2021
Republic of Serbia 6.58
Serbia - South 8.06
Belgrade region 7.73
Vojvodina region 3.98

Average over-coverage rate in 2021 at the overall level for the Republic of Serbia is 11.48%.

Average over-coverage rate (%) in 2021
Republic of Serbia 11.48
Serbia - South
Belgrade region
Vojvodina region



14. Timeliness and punctualityTop
14.1. Timeliness

Results of the survey are available 60 days after the end of the reporting period (quarter).

14.2. Punctuality

There is no time lag between the actual delivery of the data and the target date when it should have been delivered. Deadlines are respected and data are published and delivered on time, according to the pre-announced Release calendar.

15. Coherence and comparabilityTop
15.1. Comparability - geographical

The same statistical concepts are applied for the entire territory. Indicators are adjusted to the concepts and definitions applied in the methodologies, according to the Council Regulation No. 1165/98 ANEX D for short-term statistics.

15.2. Comparability - over time

Time series are comparable since 2005.

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

Collected data are checked and compared with the data from the previous quarter of the same year on micro level.

Comparison with VAT data does not indicate major discrepancies between available data from administrative sources and results of the survey.

15.4. Coherence - internal

Not applicable.

16. Cost and BurdenTop
16. Cost and Burden

Standardized information on cost and burden is not systematically collected.

A system of coordination of random samples of business entities has been introduced, reducing the burden of small units.

17. Data revisionTop
17.1. Data revision - policy
The SORS general revision policy constitutes the global frame ensuring that each statistical domain shall define its own revision policy in compliance with its specific nature. 
The general SORS revision policy determines:
- general rules of revisions of the published data,
- forms of informing users as regards the possible causes of revisions,
- categories of revisions, and
- documents covering all aspects of revisions.
The general SORS revision policy is available at http://www.stat.gov.rs/media/2332/general-revision-policy.docx.


17.2. Data revision - practice

Typical revisions are minimal. If an error occurs, it is corrected as soon as possible.

Significant revisions are used if methodological changes occur. For significant revisions (change of the base year), all series are recalculated.

18. Statistical processingTop
18.1. Source data

Data set for legal persons is obtained from the statistical survey and regarding unincorporated enterprises, the data are from administrative sources.

Sample selection frame is based on Statistical Business Register data, as of December 31st, year T-1, where T is the current year.

Stratification of sample frame is done according to economic activity of enterprises, size classes of financial reports, territories (Srbija-jug, Belgrade and Vojvodina) and amount of annual turnover.

Stratification according to size of the enterprise is into large, medium, small and micro. Size classes are taken from financial statements and they are defined according to the annual turnover, number of employees and assets of the enterprise.

So as to provide data on turnover in wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycles of unincorporated enterprises, administrative data are used – VAT reports from Tax Administration.

18.2. Frequency of data collection


18.3. Data collection

Data from the reporting units are collected by post, web questionnaires, mail and fax. The questionnaire used in the survey is Quarterly survey on wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycles (TRG-16M).

Reporting units, according to the instructions, fill in the form TRG-16M, using the accounting and other necessary documentation.

The deadline for submitting the completed form is 15 days after the end of the reference period (quarter).

The measures used to increase the response rate are reminders sent via email and post.


18.4. Data validation

Control and validation are performed visually during coding, data entry and after the data entry. Data control is in accordance with the defined control criteria (computer and logical control). Data are compared with the data from the previous period of the same year, as well as with the data from the same period last year.

Statistical results for the referent quarter are compared with the results of the previous quarter.


18.5. Data compilation

Estimates of total values and their standard errors are calculated by using the Horvitz-Thompson estimates in accordance with the standard procedure for stratified simple random sample. This means that the estimates of total data are calculated by summing the weighted values from the sample. The sampling weight is corrected for unit non-response.

18.6. Adjustment

Not performed.

19. CommentTop