Wholesale tradeMetadataPeriod: AnnualYear: 2020
|02. Metadata update|
|03. Statistical presentation|
|04. Unit of measure|
|05. Reference Period|
|06. Institutional Mandate|
|08. Release policy|
|09. Frequency of dissemination|
|10. Accessibility and clarity|
|11. Quality management|
|13. Accuracy and reliability|
|14. Timeliness and punctuality|
|15. Coherence and comparability|
|16. Cost and Burden|
|17. Data revision|
|18. Statistical processing|
|01.1. Contact organisation|
Statistical office of the Republic of Serbia
|01.2. Contact organisation unit|
Domestic Trade, Catering and Tourism Statistics Division
|01.3. Contact name|
|01.4. Contact person function|
Statistician methodologist in Domestic trade statistics unit
|01.5. Contact mail address|
Milana Rakića 5, Belgrade
|01.6. Contact email address|
|01.7. Contact phone number|
(+381) 11 2412 922/ext. 216
|01.8. Contact fax number|
|02. Metadata update||Top|
|02.1. Metadata last certified|
|02.2. Metadata last posted|
|02.3. Metadata last update|
|03. Statistical presentation||Top|
|03.1. Data description|
Data on wholesale trade turnover are collected by the statistical survey "Quarterly survey on wholesale trade" (Form Trg-16KV). The survey collects the following data: turnover (including VAT), calculated VAT, number of employees, supplies and turnover for 30 commodity groups. The purpose of the quarterly survey on wholesale trade is to provide the data necessary for monitoring the volume and dynamics of the turnover, as well as for analysing the effects of measures on the overall trade policy; they are part of the results for the distribution trade (CA divisions 45, 46 and 47).
|03.2. Classification system|
- Classification of Activities 2010 (“Official Gazette of RS”, No 54/10), it is completely harmonized with the Statistical Classification of Economic Aclivities in EU- NACE Rev.2.
- Nomenclature of Statistical Territorial Units.
|03.3. Coverage - sector|
The units of observation are all enterprises (legal entities) that are registered in the Division 46 of the Classification of Activities (CA).
|03.4. Statistical concepts and definitions|
Turnover in wholesale trade presents the value of sold goods, for the purpose of further selling (to trade enterprises and shops dealing with retail trade, selling to other wholesale traders) for further processing of goods, as well as goods sale to huge consumers for personal consumption, only on domestic market, including value added tax (VAT). Only trade goods is expressed, not the sale of own products. The wholesale trade turnover includes the sale of goods from consignment warehouses, as well as transit turnover (if it is recorded in the bookkeeping as wholesale trade), that is, the sale of goods delivered directly to the buyer from the warehouse or other destination of the producer, importer or other enterprise without prior storage of goods. It also covers services in the goods turnover (agency, intermediary, agent, commission, etc.). Goods turnover by commodity groups, with VAT included, presents the value of goods by the structure of the sales assortment. Separated commodity groups are in line with the Classification of Products by Activities (CPA). The data on stocks are the value of goods, at purchase prices, located in warehouses and warehouses of the enterprises, as of the end of the observed period, excluding VAT. The number of employees implies the persons who worked (as of the end of the observed period) in a business entity, had a contract of employment for definite or indefinite period and were paid for their work. This number includes business owners, partners, as well as paid family members.
|03.5. Statistical unit|
The statistical unit of observation and the reporting unit is the enterprise (business entity).
|03.6. Statistical population|
The basic set of units (target population) was formed on the basis of data from active business entities whose principal activity is wholesale trade (CA division 46). All large and medium enterprises are covered, while small and micro ones are selected by random sample method.
The basic set includes a number of business entities that perform wholesale trade, but according to the principal activity, they are classified into other activities.
|03.7. Reference area|
All indices are calculated for the level of Republic of Serbia – total (NSTU 0) and are expressed at current prices.
Note: Starting from 1999 the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia has not at disposal and may not provide available certain data relative to AP Kosovo and Metohija and therefore these data are not included in the coverage for the Republic of Serbia (total).
|03.8. Coverage - Time|
For all series of indices, data are available from the first quarter of 2005 onwards. Historical time series for the period 2005-2010 are calculated in accordance with 2010 Classification of Activities, so they can be considered continuous.
|03.9. Base period|
Base year is 2015.
|04. Unit of measure||Top|
|04. Unit of measure|
Data on turnover (and VAT) are collected in thousand RSD.
Only indices at current prices are disseminated in quarterly periodicity. On annual level, absolute figures are also issued.
|05. Reference Period||Top|
|05. Reference Period|
Reference period is a calendar quarter.
|06. Institutional Mandate||Top|
|06.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements|
Conducting of the statistical surveys stated in point 3.1 is based on the following legal acts of the Republic of Serbia:
- Law on Official Statistics
- Decision on the Programme of the Official Statistics
- Regulation on establishing the Plan of the Official Statistics for current year
- Regulation on the Classification of Activities
Legal acts and other documents are available on SORS website:
|06.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing|
|07.1. Confidentiality - policy|
Data confidentiality is stipulated by:
- Official Statistics Law (Official Gazette of RS, No 104/2009),
- Rulebook on statistical data protection in the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
- Guidelines on measures of data and informatio protection in the Statistical Office of the Republic og Serbia
European legislation: Regulatio (EC) No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2009 on European statistics.
|07.2. Confidentiality - data treatment|
Confidential data may be used for statistical purposes only. Confidential statistical data are individual data as well as aggregates on which the data holder may be recognized in any way.
Confidential data are considered official secret and cannot be published or communicated, that is, they cannot be part of aggregated data from which individual data can be identified.
When processing confidential data for users’ needs, data protection must be provided so that individual data cannot be identified on either level of aggregated data.
|08. Release policy||Top|
|08.1. Release calendar|
Release Calendar is publicly accessible on SORS website, for the whole coming year.
|08.2. Release calendar access|
Release Calendar is available on SORS website: http://www.stat.gov.rs/calendar/
|08.3. Release policy - user access|
Survey results are simultaneously obtainable to all users under equal conditions.
|09. Frequency of dissemination||Top|
|09. Frequency of dissemination|
Periodicity of data publishing (in the form of indices) is quarterly.
|10. Accessibility and clarity||Top|
|10.1. Dissemination format - News release|
Data are not published in the form of news release.
|10.2. Dissemination format - Publications|
In quarterly statistical release “Domestic trade”, published are data on domestic trade for CA divisions 45, 46 and 47.
“Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Serbia” - an comprehensive annual publication compiles all final data and series of the most important indicators from different areas of economic and social life of the country;
“Statistical Pocketbook of the RS” - an edition that offers the principal statistical data on national social and economic development.
|10.3. Dissemination format - online database|
Wholesale trade data (annual indicators) are available in the Statistical Database in scope of the statistical area of Domestic Trade:
|10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access|
Micro-data are not disseminated to users.
|10.5. Dissemination format - other|
|10.6. Documentation on methodology|
Methodological explanations and statistical questionnaires on wholesale trade are available on the website:
|10.7. Quality management - documentation|
|11. Quality management||Top|
|11.1. Quality assurance|
Following the model of the European Statistical System, and in accordance with the mission and vision, as well as the Quality Policy, the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia strives to harmonize statistical production with the European Code of Practice (CoP).
The quality management system of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia is based on the European Statistics Code of Practice and is fully adapted to statistical needs, because the quality of statistical processes is being systematically improved, as well as the final results, i.e. data, and the provision of services to users.
The document Quality Policy is available on SORS website:
|11.2. Quality management - assessment|
Statistical activities are focused on the monitoring of main aspects of quality within the organization of statistical researches (data collection, coverage, data processing, timeliness ...).
Quality of data and conducting of researches are monitored at all stages of work. The obtained assessments on the quality of the research flow and the final evaluations are at a satisfactory level. This is supported by regular analysis of data by competent statisticians from the Internal Trade Division, experts from the field of samples, time series, information technologies, and colleagues from the National Accounts Statistics.
|12.1. User needs|
The main data users are state administration bodies (Government, Ministry of Trade, Tourism and Telecommunications, Ministry of Finance), Chamber of Commerce, business entities, economic analysts, media representatives, researchers, students, internal users (National accounts statistics), international users (Eurostat).
|12.2. User satisfaction|
SORS conducts the Users Satisfaction Survey. The results are available on SORS:.
Definitions of basic variables and methodology on data collecting are mostly adjusted to Eurostat recommendations regarding short – term indicators (Council Regulation No. 1165/98 ANEX D). The data are not seasonally adjusted, presenting the main deviation from international standards.
|13. Accuracy and reliability||Top|
|13.1. Overall accuracy|
The main sources of errors in this survey are of sampling and non sampling nature.
The survey is based on random sample. Sampling frame is constructed using enterprise data from the Statistical Business Register (SBR).
The sample design is such that the estimates for the main domains are of satisfactory precision.
The following non-sampling errors exist in this survey:
The bias in the results that is cause by these errors is small.
|13.2. Sampling error|
Sampling errors of total estimates are presented by the corresponding coefficients of variation for the estimation domains. Sampling weights that are used in estimation are corrected for non-response.
The coefficient of variation for the estimated total turnover achieved in the NACE Rev.2 division G46 at the overall level for the Republic of Serbia is 1,95%.
|13.3. Non-sampling error|
Non-sampling errors can be defined as errors arising during the course of all survey activities. Non-sampling errors can arise from: coverage errors, non-response, processing, etc.
The magnitude of the under-coverage error is not computed but is not considered significant. These errors are mainly caused by not up to date Statistical Business Register that is used for constructing the sampling frame.
The smallest enterprises according to turnover are excluded (cut-off) from the sampling frame.
The over-coverage (7.47%) and non-response (6.05%) errors (or the rate of response) are computed using the coded information on response that is classified in 9 categories:
In order to reduce non-sampling errors caused by human errors, the following measures are undertaken: collected data are entered in the PC application that represents the so-called "controlled entry". During this phase, the program does not allow the entry of false data. The next step is the release of the program for computation- logical control. Further steps in data editing are based on the analysis of statistical experts and resulting with correction of discovered errors. If necessary, reporting unit is contacted in order to get correct data. Finally, data validation is realized during analysis of the aggregates.
|14. Timeliness and punctuality||Top|
Final data of the quarterly survey are published 60 days after the end of the observed period (t+60).
There is no time lag between the actual delivery of the data and the target date when it should have been delivered. Deadlines are respected and data are published and delivered on time, according to the pre-announced Release calendar.
|15. Coherence and comparability||Top|
|15.1. Comparability - geographical|
The same statistical concepts are applied for the entire territory.
|15.2. Comparability - over time|
All time series of the calculated indicators are comparable over time.
|15.3. Coherence - cross domain|
Collected data are checked and compared in details with the data from other sources. Comparison with VAT data does not indicate major discrepancies between available data from administrative sources and results of the survey.
Occasionally, comparisons with other statistical sources covering turnover, quarterly Structural Business Statistics data, are carried out, but it should be noted that there are certain methodological differences and some differences in definitions.
|15.4. Coherence - internal|
Wholesale trade data are internally coherent. In order to check the internal coherence, comparison is carried out between the data of the previous quarter and data of the reference quarter, as well as comparison of the current data with the data of the corresponding period of the previous year.
All aggregated data are derived directly from micro data.
|16. Cost and Burden||Top|
|16. Cost and Burden|
Standardized information on cost and burden is not systematically collected.
A system of coordination of random samples of business entities has been introduced, reducing the burden of small units.
|17. Data revision||Top|
|17.1. Data revision - policy|
“General Revision Policy” is available as official policy revision of the statistical system on the website of SORS:
|17.2. Data revision - practice|
Significant revision was carried out in 2011 when application of the Law on Classification of Activities started ("Official Gazette of RS" No. 104/09) and the Regulation on Classification of Activities ("Official Gazette of RS", No. 54/09) - CA (2010).
|18. Statistical processing||Top|
|18.1. Source data|
Data are sample collected, meaning that large and medium-size enterprises are always covered and small and micro ones are selected by random sample.
Sample selection frame is based on Statistical Business Register data, as of December, year T-1. It consists of a list of active enterprise data that submitted the final account for 2018. The turnover and the number of employees are key auxiliary features of enterprises whose values are taken over from final accounts.
Stratification of sample frame is done according to economic activity of enterprises, size classes of financial reports, territories (Serbia - South, Belgrade and Vojvodina) and amount of annual turnover.
Stratification according to size of the enterprise is into large, medium, small and micro. Size classes are taken from financial statements and they are defined according to the annual turnover, number of employees and assets of the enterprise.
|18.2. Frequency of data collection|
Periodicity of data collection is quarterly.
|18.3. Data collection|
Data are collected by post, web questionnaires, mail and fax. The questionnaires are sent to the reporting units before the beginning of the reporting quarters.
Reporting units, according to the instructions, fill in the form TRG-16KV, using the accounting and other necessary documentation. The deadline for submitting the completed form is 15 days after the end of the reference period (quarterly). The measures used to increase the response rate are reminders sent via email and post.
|18.4. Data validation|
Logical accounting control is carried out by a whole set of activities during conducting of the statistical survey: first, statisticians in regional departments perform data accounting and control. Data control is done by comparing the data with the previous period as well as comparing data from the same reporting unit with related data from other statistical surveys.
|18.5. Data compilation|
The estimations of totals and their standard errors are calculated pursuant to standard procedure for stratified random sample (Horvitz-Thompson estimates). This means that estimates of totals are calculated by summing the weighted values from the sample. Sample weight is corrected for non-response units.