Material flow indicators

Period: Annual
Year: 2020

01. Contact
02. Metadata update
03. Statistical presentation
04. Unit of measure
05. Reference Period
06. Institutional Mandate
07. Confidentiality
08. Release policy
09. Frequency of dissemination
10. Accessibility and clarity
11. Quality management
12. Relevance
13. Accuracy and reliability
14. Timeliness and punctuality
15. Coherence and comparability
16. Cost and Burden
17. Data revision
18. Statistical processing
19. Comment

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01. ContactTop
01.1. Contact organisation

Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia

01.2. Contact organisation unit

Environmental statistics and accounts divistion

01.3. Contact name

Bojana Kržalić Milenković

01.4. Contact person function


01.5. Contact mail address

5 Milana Rakića, Belgrade

01.6. Contact email address

01.7. Contact phone number

00381 11 3087 001

01.8. Contact fax number

Not applicable.


02. Metadata updateTop
02.1. Metadata last certified
02.2. Metadata last posted
02.3. Metadata last update

03. Statistical presentationTop
03.1. Data description

Economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) are the framework for compiling statistics involving flows of materials from natural resources to national economy. EW-MFA are descriptive statistics, in physical units (in thousand tonnes per year). They are consistent with the principles and system boundaries of ESA2010 and follow the residence principle. This means that EW-MFA are also a part of SEEA.

EW-MFA are consistent compilations of the overall material inputs into national economies, the changes of material stocks within the economic system and the material outputs to other economies or to the environment according to Regulation (EU) 691/2011.

The main indicators of material flow accounts:

-          domestic extraction (DE): DE indicates the total amount of material extracted by resident units from the natural environment for further processing in the economy;

-           imports (IMP): imports of products in their simple mass weight;

-          exports (EXP): exports of products in their simple mass weight;

-          physical trade balance (PTB): physical imports minus physical exports;

-          direct material input (DMI): DMI indicates the direct input of material into the economy. DMI includes all materials which are of economic value and which are availble for use in production and consumption activities. It is calculated as the sum of domestic extraction plus physical imports: DMI = DE + IMP;

-          domestic material consumption (DMC): DMC indicates the total amount of material actually consumed domestically by resident units. DMC can be calculated as direct material input minus physical exports: DMC = DMI – EXP. 

Resource productivity provides ratios of gross domestic product (GDP) over domestic material consumption (DMC).

Domestic material consumption per capita is defined as the total amount of material directly used in an economy per capita. For the 'per capita' calculation of the indicator the average population is used.



03.2. Classification system

EW-MFA record physical flows of materials broken down by type of flow – e.g. domestic extraction (i.e. natural input), imports and exports (i.e. product) and by type of material.

The EW-MFA classification of materials is hierarchical with main material flow categories (1-digit level); i.e. MF.1 to MF.6. Each main category is further broken down, maximal down to 4-digit-level:

·  1-digit: material category;

·  2-digit: material class;

·  3-digit: material group;

·  4-digit: material sub-group.

The type of material corresponds in a certain way to the type of flow. The classification of MF.1 'biomass', MF.2 'metal ores', MF.3 'non-metallic mineral', and MF.4 'fossil energy materials/carriers' is based pragmatically on the statistical data sources employed to compile domestic extraction for these type of materials, e.g. agriculture, forestry, fishery, and energy statistics. In EW-MFA traded products are presented by type of material and not by product classification. For this, each CN (Combined Nomenclature) code is assigned to one and only one MF class.

 Annexes :
 MFA classification
03.3. Coverage - sector

The data refer to national economy as defined in the system of national accounts (see ESA2010).

03.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) belong to the international system of environmental economic accounting (SEEA-Central Framework).

EW-MFA are closely related to concepts and definitions of national accounts. Most notably they follow the residence principle, i.e. they record material flows related to resident unit's activities.

03.5. Statistical unit
Statistical units of observation are defined by statistical surveys from which data are taken over (statistics: agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy, foreign trade and industry).
03.6. Statistical population

The statistical population is defined in the statistical surveys from which data taken over. EW-MFA include all materials (excluding water and air) crossing the system boundary (between the environment and the economy) on the input side or on the output side. The economy is demarcated by the conventions of the national accounting system (resident units).

03.7. Reference area

The economy or the Republic of Serbia determined by resident units. 

Starting from 1999 the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia has not at disposal and may not provide available certain data relative to AP Kosovo and Metohija and therefore these data are not included in the coverage for the Republic of Serbia (total).

03.8. Coverage - Time

2001 – 2020.

03.9. Base period

Not applicable.

04. Unit of measureTop
04. Unit of measure

Thousand tonnes.

For resource productivity RSD/kg.

For DMC per capita tonnes per capita

05. Reference PeriodTop
05. Reference Period

Calendar year.

06. Institutional MandateTop
06.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

National legislation:

- Official Statistics Law
- Resolution on the Programme of official statistics
- Regulation on the Plan of official statistics for the current year
* The above documents are available at SORS website:


06.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not applicable.

07. Confidentiality Top
07.1. Confidentiality - policy

Data confidentiality is stipulated by:

- Official Statistics Law (Official Gazette of RS, number 104/2009), Articles 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, and 49.


- Rulebook on statistical data protection in the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia


- Guidelines on measures of data and information protection in the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia

( )


07.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Confidentiality is based on the principles according to the Official Statistics Law (“Official Gazette of RS” no. 104/09).

Confidential data are not published.

08. Release policyTop
08.1. Release calendar
Calendar of releases is available at SORS website on the 1st day of December every year for the forthcoming year (
All SORS releases are launched at 12.00.
Any divergence from the defined time schedule are announced in advance and explained in the Calendar.  


08.2. Release calendar access

Calendar of releases is available at SORS website:


08.3. Release policy - user access
The data obtained through statistical surveys are released at the internet presentation (,
in statistical releases and publications ( 
The results of official statistics are available at the same time to all users on impartial basis; any privileged access by external users before their release is not allowed.  


09. Frequency of disseminationTop
09. Frequency of dissemination


10. Accessibility and clarityTop
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

Not applicable.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Via statistical release Material flow accounts 2020

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Via data base.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not applicable.

10.6. Documentation on methodology

Some methodological frameworks is possible to find within SORS`s ad hoc publication " Material flow accounts in Republic of Serbia 2001-2011".

10.7. Quality management - documentation

Quality report are provided, according to Regulation 691/2011.

11. Quality managementTop
11.1. Quality assurance
The SORS quality management system is relied on the Serbian official statistics mission and vision, as well as on the European Statistics Code of Practice – CoP and the Total Quality Management – TQM principles, which together make the common quality framework of the European Statistical System (ESS).
For more information, please see the documents at


11.2. Quality management - assessment

Data are collected from reliable sources in line with methodology and ensuring a high degree of comparability.

12. Relevance Top
12.1. User needs

The key users of Material Flow Accounts are the state institutions (Ministries, agencies etc), other national users (environmental analysts, non-government organizations, students, general public etc.), EU and international institutions.

12.2. User satisfaction

No systematic user satisfaction survey related to Material Flow Accounts.

12.3. Completeness
The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia has provided all mandatory variables for Material Flow Indicators according to Regulation 691/2011 / EC.

The data are updated up to 2020.

13. Accuracy and reliabilityTop
13.1. Overall accuracy

The quality of the accounts is only as good as the quality of the underlying basic statistics.

13.2. Sampling error

Not applicable.

13.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable.

14. Timeliness and punctualityTop
14.1. Timeliness

Data are available with a timeliness of  T+ 12 months after the end of the reference year.


14.2. Punctuality

Data are published in line with Release Calendar.

15. Coherence and comparabilityTop
15.1. Comparability - geographical
The Methodology of Material Flow Indicators enables reporting according to the rules of the European Economic Environmental Accounts Regulation 691/2011 / EC and geographical comparability with the data of the countries of the European Union.
Material Flow Accounts are produced on the level of the Republic of the Serbia.


15.2. Comparability - over time

The data are comparable and available from 2001 onwards.  

15.3. Coherence - cross domain

The data are coherent with National Accounts and Environmental Accounts.

15.4. Coherence - internal

The data reported are internally coherent (totals are equal to the sum of the breakdowns).

16. Cost and BurdenTop
16. Cost and Burden

Not applicable.

17. Data revisionTop
17.1. Data revision - policy
The SORS general revision policy constitutes the global frame ensuring that each statistical domain shall define its own revision policy in compliance with its specific nature. 
The general SORS revision policy determines:
- general rules of revisions of the published data,
- forms of informing users as regards the possible causes of revisions,
- categories of revisions, and
- documents covering all aspects of revisions.
The general SORS revision policy is available at


17.2. Data revision - practice

The published data should be regarded as final, unless otherwise stated. Corrections and revisions might occur.

18. Statistical processingTop
18.1. Source data

EW-MFA is based on a variety of statsitical data sources (industry, agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics, energy statistics, foreign trade statistics).

In some cases estimation procedures are applied where no data sources are available (Eurostat provides standardised estimation procedures).

18.2. Frequency of data collection


18.3. Data collection

Data are taken over from stratistical sources.

18.4. Data validation

Methodological and logical checks between different variables are performed and the consistency of data over time is checked as well.

18.5. Data compilation

The main aggregates are derived using bottom-up approach, i.e. by summing up data.

18.6. Adjustment

Not applicable.


19. CommentTop
19. Comment

No comment.