Indices of turnover in services in the Republic of SerbiaMetadataPeriod: AnnualYear: 2020
|02. Metadata update|
|03. Statistical presentation|
|04. Unit of measure|
|05. Reference Period|
|06. Institutional Mandate|
|08. Release policy|
|09. Frequency of dissemination|
|10. Accessibility and clarity|
|11. Quality management|
|13. Accuracy and reliability|
|14. Timeliness and punctuality|
|15. Coherence and comparability|
|16. Cost and Burden|
|17. Data revision|
|18. Statistical processing|
|01.1. Contact organisation|
Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
|01.2. Contact organisation unit|
Two organizational units take part in the activities on the variable Turnover in services. All relevant information relating to the Trade and Catering are marked with A), and for other sections covered by the mentioned indicator with B).
Information that is in common for both organizational units will not be specially marked.
A) Trade, catering trade and tourism statistics Division
B) Structural business statistics Unit
|01.3. Contact name|
A) Bosko Trmcic
B) Gordana Zamaklar
|01.4. Contact person function|
A) Head of Division for Trade, Catering Trade and Tourism Statistics
B) Statistician methodologist for Quarterly Structural Business Statistics
|01.5. Contact mail address|
Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Milana Rakica 5
|01.6. Contact email address|
|01.7. Contact phone number|
A) (+381) 11 2411 922
B) (+381) 11 2412 922/ 352 ext
|01.8. Contact fax number|
A) (+381) 11 2411 922
|02. Metadata update||Top|
|02.1. Metadata last certified|
|02.2. Metadata last posted|
|02.3. Metadata last update|
|03. Statistical presentation||Top|
|03.1. Data description|
The turnover index for services is an important indicator for monitoring the dynamics of movements in this part of non - financial economy as well as for short term anticipation. Services turnover indices are derived by combination of data on turnover from four statistical surveys that are based on random samples and administrative data (Tax Administrative Data Base). The statistical surveys are:
A) Quarterly Survey on wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycle, (TRG-16M form) provides the data on turnover in the wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycles, as well as the maintenance and repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles in the Republic of Serbia. Results are used to analyse the volume and monitor changes in the structure of consumption of goods and services represented in the wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycles and maintenance and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles.
A) Quarterly Survey on wholesale trade (TRG-16KV form) provides the data on turnover in wholesale trade in the Republic of Serbia. Results are used to monitor the volume and trends of turnover in wholesale trade; analysis of effects of commercial policy measures; analysis of turnover structure by groups of goods and major users; analysis of volume and structure of turnover by trade groups of activities.
A) Quarterly Survey on Catering Trades (UG-11, UG11P forms) provides the data on turnover generated by the enterprise through the sale of accommodation, food and beverages, and other services accompanying basic accommodation food and beverages services.
B) Quarterly Structural Business Survey (SBS-03 form) provides data on financial operations of enterprises which is based on: operating income, operating costs and stocks.. Within "Operating income", data for "Revenues from sales of goods, products and services" is collected, which in fact represents turnover.
These surveys refer to enterprises that in the legal world correspond to legal persons, with one exception, Quarterly Survey on Catering Trades (form UG11P), which refers only to entrepreneurs. For entrepreneurs in other NACE Rev. 2 divisions, data is extracted from the tax data base.
The indices are computed by combining estimates on turnover from the four surveys and tax data.
Production of these indices and metadata is the result of implementation IPA 2012 Multi-beneficiary Statistical Cooperation Programme, subproject 13 Short-term business statistics.
|03.2. Classification system|
The National Classification of Activities - KD (2010), that completely corresponds to the Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community (NACE Rev.2):
|03.3. Coverage - sector|
The surveys listed under item 3.1 have the following coverage:
|03.4. Statistical concepts and definitions|
The objective of the turnover index is to show the development of the market for goods and services.
Turnover comprises the totals invoiced by the observation unit during the reference period, and this corresponds to market sales of goods or services supplied to third parties. Turnover includes all costs charged to the customers (transportation, packaging, insurance, etc.) even when those costs are shown separately in the invoice. Turnover excludes rebate, discount, cash accounts, excise, VAT and other taxes which are calculated at the time of products sales.
|03.5. Statistical unit|
Statistical observation unit and a reporting unit is an enterprise.
|03.6. Statistical population|
The target population consists of enterprises with main economic activity is one of the NACE activities listed under item 3.3.
The surveys listed under item 3.1 use different criteria to exclude the smallest units from the sampling frames with respect to turnover from the balance sheet:
A) G 45: Enterprise is excluded if its turnover is less or equal than 1300 thousand RSD;
Tax Administration Data Base (monthly and quarterly) is an additional source on turnover for entrepreneurs which are not covered by statistical surveys. In 2020, turnover data of about 10.9* thousand units from Tax administration is added to the survey estimates of turnover.
* In 2020, the number of units from Administrative sources has increased. In section I (natural persons-entrepreneurs), current database of final accounts for VAT taxpayers has been supplemented with a database of flat rate taxpayers who submit financial reports.
|03.7. Reference area|
The reference area is the Republic of Serbia.
(Remark: Starting from 1999 the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia has not at disposal and may not provide available certain data relative to AP Kosovo and Metohia and therefore these data are not included in the coverage for the Republic of Serbia (total).
The turnover of the units located outside the Serbian territory is not included.
|03.8. Coverage - Time|
For all data series, data are available from the first quarter of 2008 onwards.
|03.9. Base period|
Base year: 2015 = 100
|04. Unit of measure||Top|
|04. Unit of measure|
Indices (2015 = 100) in unadjusted, calendar adjusted and seasonally adjusted form.
|05. Reference Period||Top|
|05. Reference Period|
Reference period is calendar quarter.
|06. Institutional Mandate||Top|
|06.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements|
The official statistics law (Official Gazette RS, No 104/09):
Decision of the Programme of Official Statistics over the period 2016 – 2020 (Official Gazette RS, No 55/15)
Regulation on the Plan of official statistics for 2020 (Official Gazette of the RS, No. 89/2019)
Law on the Classification of activities (Official Gazette RS, No 104/09):
The legal basis for the STS indicators is the Council Regulation No 1165/98 of 19 May 1998 concerning short-term statistics.
The definitions of short-term statistics variables are laid down Commission Regulation No 1503/2006 of 28 September 2006 implementing and amending Council Regulation No°1165/98 of 19 May 1998 concerning short-term statistics regarding the definition of variables.
Regulation (EC) No 1893/2006 of 20 December 2006 establishing the Statistical Classification of economic activities NACE Rev. 2 and amending Council Regulation (EEC) No 3037/90 and certain EC Regulations on specific statistical domains.
Relevant for the turnover index “other services” is Annex D of the Council Regulation No 1165/98 and the definition is described under code 120 in the Commission Regulation No 1503/2006.
Legal requirements are presented in a concise and accessible document "STS Requirements" in the STS Section:
|06.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing|
There is no data sharing to other international institutions.
|07.1. Confidentiality - policy|
At the national level data confidentiality is stipulated by:
Official Statistics Law (Official Gazette of RS, number 104/2009), Articles 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, and 49.
Rulebook on statistical data protection in the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
Guidelines on measures of data and information protection in the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia
Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2009 on European statistics.
|07.2. Confidentiality - data treatment|
Confidential data are treated according to Official Statistics Law and Rulebook on Statistical Data Protection in the SORS of the RS, article 3. "Confidential statistical data, in terms of this Rulebook, are individual data as well as aggregates based on which the data holder may be in whatever way recognized", article 11."Confidential data from Article 3 of this Rulebook are considered official secret and cannot be published or communicated, that is, they cannot be part of aggregated data from which individual data can be identified".
Data are published on the level at which they are not confidential.
|08. Release policy||Top|
|08.1. Release calendar|
A) Calendar of releases is available at SORS website on the 1st day of December every year for the forthcoming year:
All SORS releases are launched at 12.00. Any divergence from the defined time schedule are announced in advance and explained in the Calendar.
B) Not available.
|08.2. Release calendar access|
A) Calendar of releases is available at SORS website: http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-us/calendar/
|08.3. Release policy - user access|
The data obtained through statistical surveys are released at the:
- internet presentation: http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/,
- in the database: http://data.stat.gov.rs/?caller=SDDB&languageCode=en-US,
- in statistical releases and publications: http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/publikacije/.
The results of official statistics are available at the same time to all users on impartial basis; any privileged access by external users before their release is not allowed.
|09. Frequency of dissemination||Top|
|09. Frequency of dissemination|
The frequency of dissemination is quarterly.
|10. Accessibility and clarity||Top|
|10.1. Dissemination format - News release|
A) Data on Wholesale trade (Division G 46, of NACE Rev. 2) and Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (Division G 45, of NACE Rev. 2) are published quarterly, in Statistical release ‘’Domestic trade of the Republic of Serbia’’, on the SORS website
http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-us/oblasti/unutrasnja-trgovina/ according to Publications calendar.
B) Not available.
|10.2. Dissemination format - Publications|
A) Data on Wholesale trade (Division G 46, of NACE Rev. 2) and Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (Division G 45, of NACE Rev. 2) are published in the Statistical Yearbook and Statistical Pocketbook of the RS. Data on Section I are published in the Monthly statistical bulletin, Statistical Yearbook.
B) Not available.
|10.3. Dissemination format - online database|
A) Data on Domestic Trade and data on Section I is available in the Statistical Database on
B) Turnover indices in services are available on SORS Statistical database on
|10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access|
On request, the access to anonymized microdata is ensured to scientific and research institutions. The request can be placed by email at firstname.lastname@example.org, or by regular mail addressed at 5 Milana Rakića St, Belgrade.
For more information, please see http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/korisnicka-podrska/micropodaci.
|10.5. Dissemination format - other|
Only data transmission to Eurostat.
|10.6. Documentation on methodology|
A) Questionnaires for the surveys on Wholesale trade, except motor vehicles and motorcycles and Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles are available on the SORS website:
Methodological explanations (metadata) are available at SORS website:
Questionnaires for Accommodation and food services turnover are available on SORS WebSite:
Methodological explanations (metadata) are available at SORS website:
B) Methodological explanations for turnover in services are available within on SORS Statistical database:
Within the Methodological explanations for the Quarterly structural business survey, the part which relates to the definition of turnover is covered:
Content of the Quarterly structural business survey form is available on the SORS website:
|10.7. Quality management - documentation|
|11. Quality management||Top|
|11.1. Quality assurance|
The SORS quality management system is relied on the Serbian official statistics mission and vision, as well as on the European Statistics Code of Practice – CoP and the Total Quality Management – TQM principles, which together make the common quality framework of the European Statistical System (ESS).
For more information, please see the documents at: http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/o-nama/sistem-upravljanja-kvalitetom.
|11.2. Quality management - assessment|
Through all phases of data production, main quality aspects are controlled by statisticians, sample methodologist and IT experts.
|12.1. User needs|
The main users of these data include State authorities, financial institutions, economic analysts, media, researches and students, enterprises, internal users (National Accounts Department) and Eurostat.
|12.2. User satisfaction|
On biennial basis (once in two years), by the means of web interview, implemented is the User Satisfaction Survey. The survey results are available at SORS website: http://www.stat.gov.rs/en-US/o-nama/sistem-upravljanja-kvalitetom.
In particular User’s satisfaction survey which refers to STS indicators, not yet conducted.
A) Indicators are compiled with the concepts and definitions in methodology based on the EU Council Regulation No 1165/98 (Annex D) on short-term statistics and its amendments. Comparable data series could be recalculated from the first quarter 2005 onwards, but for consistency services overall, the indices are prepared from the first quarter of 2008.
B) Indicators are compiled with the concepts and definitions in methodology based on the EU Council Regulation No 1165/98 (Annex D) on short-term statistics and its amendments.
The requirements on the length of the time series are not fulfilled. The reasons are as follows:
Quarterly Structural Business Survey was introduced into the statistical system as a regular survey in 2008. In Serbia, implementation of the National Classification of Activities (CA 2010), which corresponds to NACE Rev. 2, started from the first quarter 2011. For recalculation of data for previous periods, micro approach was applied: data for previous periods were calculated by assigning a new activity code to each statistical unit and repeating the estimation procedure. Since NACE REV. 2 is characterized by regrouping of activities in services sections and with introduction of new sections that have not previously existed, there were not enough auxiliary inputs to provide data for backcasting of sufficient quality. Therefore, the first quarter 2008 is a starting point of the time series.
In order to backcast turnover by domains of ANNEX D for entrepreneurs for the period 2008-2011 (using Tax Office data bases), it was assumed that the dynamics of entrepreneurs operations follow the dynamics of companies operations. The computations were as following:
For each of the quarter in the period 2011-2014, a ratio of entrepreneurs’ turnover and enterprises turnover was calculated, according to tax data. These ratios represented measures of size of the entrepreneurs’ turnover with respect to the enterprises turnover; ratios were average across years, by quarters and domains. Finally, the turnover of entrepreneurs, by quarters and domains, was estimated by multiplying the averaged ratios with the corresponding estimates of turnover from the SBS03 survey.
|13. Accuracy and reliability||Top|
|13.1. Overall accuracy|
Data on turnover in services are collected in statistical surveys or are derived on the basis VAT returns, obtained from the Tax Administration. Consequently, the results have sampling and non-sampling errors, of which the main are: coverage, nonresponse, measurement, and processing error.
The design and organization of the surveys, as well as the data collection and processing methods ensure sufficient overall accuracy.
Tax administration data is available 40 days after the reference month (quarter). For units that report VAT data on a monthly basis, quarterly values of turnover are obtained by summing the monthly values. The quarterly turnover estimates in services are calculated by summing units’ quarterly turnover values; for units that report VAT data on a quarterly basis, monthly values for the three months of the quarter are estimated.
|13.2. Sampling error|
The sampling designs of the statistical surveys ensure results of satisfactory precision for the estimates of totals required by Annex D.
|13.3. Non-sampling error|
|14. Timeliness and punctuality||Top|
A) The results of Domestic Trade (G 45, G 46) and Accommodation and food service activities (Section I) surveys are available 60 days after the end of the reference quarter. The national publication for Domestic Trade is also 60 days after the end of the reference quarter.
B) The first results are available 55 days after the end of the reference quarter and placed at the disposition internally to Quarterly National Accounts unit. Provisional data is disseminated to Eurostat 60 days after the end of the reference quarter. Results are not nationally published yet.
A) There is no time lag between the actual delivery of the data and the target date when it should have been delivered. Deadlines are respected and data are published and delivered on time, according to the pre-announced publications calendar.
B) Turnover indices in services are not yet published.
|15. Coherence and comparability||Top|
|15.1. Comparability - geographical|
Turnover indices in services are representative only for level of Serbia – total. They are not representative for the lower regional levels.
|15.2. Comparability - over time|
The data series are comparable in time.
|15.3. Coherence - cross domain|
The data obtained by all four quarterly surveys (Quarterly Survey on wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycle, Quarterly Survey on wholesale trade, Quarterly Survey on Catering Trades and Quarterly Structural Business Survey) are used as an input data for the calculation of the quarterly macroeconomic aggregates. It means that the degree of their compliance is the highest possible.
The data from quarterly surveys and annual SBS are not completely coherent. The reasons are the different purposes and hence different used methods for the statistics. There are also some differences in the European definitions.
|15.4. Coherence - internal|
The data from statistical survey are checked for internal coherence. Each level of aggregated data is compiled directly from micro data. Control is also done by comparing the value of turnover from Quarterly Structural Business Survey with corresponding data from Department of Statistics of Trade, Catering and Tourism; with annual financial statements and wit monthly and quarterly data from Tax Administration.
|16. Cost and Burden||Top|
|16. Cost and Burden|
Standardized information on cost and burden is not systematically collected.
|17. Data revision||Top|
|17.1. Data revision - policy|
The SORS general revision policy constitutes the global frame ensuring that each statistical domain shall define its own revision policy in compliance with its specific nature.
The general SORS revision policy determines:
- general rules of revisions of the published data,
- forms of informing users as regards the possible causes of revisions,
- categories of revisions, and
- documents covering all aspects of revisions.
The general SORS revision policy is available at SORS website:
The same revision policy is applied for publishing of national data and for data transmitted to Eurostat.
So far, thе national calendar revision does not exist.
The benchmarking of turnover data from the Quarterly Structural Survey and data from the Quarterly Survey of Trade and Catering is regularly conducts. Also, comparisons are made with monthly and quarterly data from the Tax Administration database, as well as with annual financial reports.
|17.2. Data revision - practice|
A) Turnover indices for G 45, G 46 of NACE Rev. 2 are considered as final. If errors are detected, corrected data are published and disseminated as soon as possible. Major revisions are due to changes in the methodology, classification of activities (e.g. the implementation of NACE Rev. 2) and base year change. Routine revisions of Accommodation and food services (Section I of NACE Rev. 2) data due to new or corrected data received from reporting units or administrative sources. Corrected data are published and disseminated together with the provisional results of the following quarter.
B) Turnover indices in other Services activities (excluding G 45, G 46 and Section I) for all quarters of the current year are considered as provisional till the end of October next year. At that time, additional data such as annual financial statements, complete Tax Administration Data Base are at disposal. These data are used to check, benchmark and detect errors in survey data. Estimates are recalculated, with corrected data and with included data of enterprises that were received after the quarter deadline. These revised data, are the final and are available to the users in the SORS database the last day of October next year: http://data.stat.gov.rs/Home/Result/290102?languageCode=en-US.
The final data are sent to the EU last day of November, together with data of the 3rd quarter of the current year.
The major revision was carried out in 2011 when the implementation of the National Classification of Activities (CA 2010), which corresponds to NACE Rev. 2, started. Since NACE REV. 2 is characterized by the regrouping of activities in services sections and with introduction of new sections that have not previously existed, direct comparison of the entire CA (2010) and the previous CA (1996) was not possible. For recalculation of estimates for previous periods, a micro approach was applied. Based on correspondence matrices of old and new economic activity, to each sampling unit from previous periods, the new activity code was assigned. Estimation procedure was repeated using new activity codes. Therefore, the 2008-2011 indices are considered as estimated.
The rebasing from 2010 = 100 to 2015 = 100 has been made.
Routine revisions will be promptly implemented.
The data obtained by all four quarterly surveys are used as an input data for the calculation of the quarterly macroeconomic aggregates. It means that benchmarking is carried out within the Units of Quarterly National Accounts.
The data from quarterly surveys and annual SBS are not completely coherent. The reasons are the different purposes and hence different used methods for the statistics. There are also some differences in the European definitions. However, the Annual Structural Statistics Unit carried out benchmarking at microdata level with Quarterly Structural Business Survey, nine months after the reference year.
Mean Revision (MR) and Mean Absolute Revision (MAR) are used as revision indicators.
They are calculated on year-on-year growth rates for original and calendar adjusted data. The calculated values for the period first quarter 2016 - fourth quarter 2020 for Services Turnover index – total are:
• D 120 – total original data series: MR = - 0.12; MAR = 0.28 and
• D 120 – total for calendar adjusted series: MR = 0.19; MAR = 0.59
|18. Statistical processing||Top|
|18.1. Source data|
The source of data for Annex D domains, are statistical surveys or administrative data (VAT returns obtained from the Tax Administration).
Surveys are based on random samples. The sampling design of these surveys is stratified random sample. Specific characteristics of the samples are:
A) Quarterly Survey on wholesale and retail trade of motor vehicles and motorcycle (TRG-16M) and Quarterly Survey on wholesale trade (TRG-16KV):
B) Quarterly Structural Business Survey:
In all surveys, sample allocation of units is according to Bethel algorithm, which is based on a Neyman`s allocation method. Samples are allocated given planned errors (coefficients of variation) for auxiliary variables (turnover/number of employees) by main survey estimation domains.
Table below includes data on sample sizes, sample fractions and net samples by surveys.
Table 2. Sample size, sample fraction and net sample size for the year 2020
Note: For calculation of final results for Other Services (excluding G45, G46 and I), the net sample size will be larger.
|18.2. Frequency of data collection|
In statistical surveys, data are collected quarterly. Tax administration data are at disposal: monthly (for large taxpayers) about 40 calendar days after the end of the month and quarterly (for small taxpayers) 40 days after the end of quarter.
|18.3. Data collection|
In surveys, the method of collection is by post, by e-mails or by Web application. Questionnaires are sent to reporting units before the expiration of the referent quarter. Questionnaires are also available on the SORS Website. Alternatively, questionnaires are collected using fax machines.
For entrepreneurs, data from VAT declarations are used. They are received from Tax Administration on CD.
Actions taken to speed up or increase the rate of response are urgency letters by post, telephone contacts, and e-mails.
|18.4. Data validation|
For all surveys, data validation is carried out through the chain of activities: control of collected questionnaires by regional statistical staff; data entry into the PC by an interactive application which does not permit some crucial errors; detailed checking and correction of data in the program for batch editing; data editing during the analysis of data and the estimation procedure; data validation during analysis of the aggregates. If necessary, reporting units are contacted in order to get correct data.
|18.5. Data compilation|
The methods used to treat non-response: imputation for large non-respondents or those with some specific characteristics (Services activities other than G 45, G 46 and I); the other units are treated by reweighting (weights are adjusted to take account of non-response).
More information about metadata calendar and seasonal adjustment is in the Annex.Annexes : Seasonal adjustment matadata about Services Turnover indices.